The special challenges of researching teaching and learning
[Italics indicates a hyperlink]
We’re passionate about teaching and learning and equally passionate about evidence-based medicine. So, it follows that we’re also interested in evidence-based teaching methods. That translates into interest in Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) at the School of Medicine.
This means we have teachers interested in conducting research studies about their teaching and in finding better ways to help students learn. This is a particularly challenging type of research that raises unique issues about power, confidentiality, captive populations, and the burden on participants.
The Queen’s General Research Ethics Board (GREB) issued a four-page guideline document on Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) in June 2017.
As much of the research conducted by those involved in the UGME program focuses on SoTL – and the HSREB is aligned with the Queen’s GREB – these Guidelines are relevant to research considerations for both faculty, staff, and student-led projects.
The Guidelines document draws attention to studies with direct student involvement, as well as self-studies, which both have implications for student privacy, including during the research dissemination process.
For studies with direct student involvement, other considerations that are highlighted include:
The power-over relationships between instructors/researchers and students can impact the students’ decision to participate in the research. This differential can be managed by keeping the instructors/researchers at arm’s length from the students by person or time [with suggestions provided]
This term can be applied when participants are dependent on an ‘authority figure’ (e.g., instructor/researcher) who can infringe on their freedom to make decisions. [Guideline include ways to mitigate this risk.]
The main purpose of formal education is for students to gain knowledge, not to be participants in research. If students are repeatedly asked to participate in research studies, their educational pursuits may be compromised. It may be of value for instructors/researchers to consider what other types of research are being conducted with students to diminish the impact of participant burden. Also, instructors/researchers should try to design studies that help enrich the students’ educational experiences instead of distracting from those experiences.
Students may have concerns about whether or not their instructors/researchers know if they took part in the research. Students may feel their decision not to participate in the research could impact their academic trajectory. [Includes suggestions for how to mitigate this risk].
[Excerpts from pages 2-3 of the Guideline]
If you’re interested in creating a study related to your teaching in the UGME program, feel free to get in touch with the Education Team to talk through some of these challenges. We’re here to help.
6th annual Medical Student Research Showcase
By Drs. Heather Murray & Melanie Walker
This year the School of Medicine is proud to invite you to the 6th annual Medical Student Research Showcase on Wednesday September 20th.
This event celebrates the research achievements of our undergraduate medical students, with both posters and an oral plenary session featuring research performed by students while they have been enrolled in medical school. All students who received summer studentship research funding through the School of Medicine in 2017 will be presenting their work, as well as many other research initiatives. The posters will be displayed in the David Walker atrium of the School of Medicine building from 8am until 5pm, with the students standing at their posters answering questions between 10:30 and noon.
The oral plenary features the top research projects selected by a panel of faculty judges, and will run in room 132A from noon until 1:30pm on September 20th, immediately following the poster session Q&A.
This year’s faculty judges included:
Dr. Yuka Asai
Dr. Jennifer Flemming
Dr. Katrina Gee
Dr. David Good
Dr. Dianne Groll
Dr. Paula James
Dr. Robert Reid
Dr. Prameet Sheth
Dr. Graeme Smith
Dr. Tan Towheed
Dr. Andrea Winthrop
We are very grateful to these faculty members for evaluating our oral plenary applicants this year.
The three students who have been selected for the oral plenary session, and the titles of their research presentations and faculty supervisor names are listed below. Each of these three students will receive The Albert Clark Award for Medical Student Research Excellence.
Gregory Hawley – Plasminogen depletion following severe burn injury
Jeffrey Mah – Survival following Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Population-based Study
Sean Tom – ETS1 transcription factor-mediated upregulation of microRNA-31 controls cardiac fibrogenesis in human atrial fibrillation.
Please set aside some time to attend the Medical Student Research Showcase on September 20th. The students will appreciate your interest and support, and you will be amazed at what they have been able to achieve.
Queen’s UGME well-represented at CCME
Queen’s UGME was well-represented in the oral and poster presentations at the recent Canadian Conference on Medical Education (CCME) held in Winnipeg, MB.
Four oral presentations showcased UG work with another oral highlighting a teaching innovation in the QuARMS Program while a dozen posters featured Queen’s UG research and innovations featuring work by faculty, students, and staff.
As explained on the CCME website, “the purpose of the CCME is to highlight, and allow participants to benefit from, developments in medical education and to promote academic medicine by establishing an annual forum for medical educators and their many partners to meet and exchange ideas.”
The Queen’s oral presentations included:
- The Next SSTEP: The Surgical Skills and Technology Elective Program decreases cognitive load during suturing tasks in 2nd year medical students by Henry Ajzenberg, Peter Wang, Adam Mosa, Frances Dang, Tyson Savage, Peter Thin Vo, Justin Wang, Stephen Mann, Andrea Winthrop
- The Newborn Book – An evaluation of an interactive eBook as course material by Lauren Friedman, Jonathan Cluett, Bob Connelly
- Altering the scoring of global rating scales on an Undergraduate OSCE: Does it affect the identification of candidates with borderline performance? By Michelle Gibson, Eleni Katsoulas, Stefan Merchant, Andrea Winthrop
- Sampling Patient Experience to Assess Communication (SPEAC): A Targeted Needs Assessment by Adam Mosa, Andrea Winthrop, Sachin Pasricha, Eleni Katsoulas
- Fireside chats – High Impact Informal Learning by Jennifer MacKenzie, McMaster University, Theresa Nowlan-Suart, Anthony Sanfilippo
Posters, presented both during facilitated poster sessions and the new, dedicated poster session, included:
- An Inter-professional, Cross-cultural Service Learning Project: Development of a Nutrition Education Program in Rural Tanzanian Schools by Jenn Carpenter, Queen’s University, Donna Clarke-McMullen, Renee Berquist, Saint Lawrence College
- Pathways to community service learning: The Queen’s Service-Learning Framework by Lindsay Davidson and Theresa Nowlan Suart
- Introducing Medical Students to Stories of Indigenous Patients by Lindsay Davidson, Melanie Walker, Steven Tresierra, Jennifer McCall, Michael Green, Laura Maracle,
- Predictors of medical student engagement in an e-Portfolio for intrinsic CanMEDS roles by Steven Bae, Danielle LaPointe-McEwan, Sheila Pinchin, Anthony Sanfilippo, John Freeman, Queen’s University Ulemu Luhanga, Emory University Jennifer MacKenzie, McMaster University
- Evaluating the effectiveness of the First Patient Program’s use of resources in achieving learning objectives for medical students by Stephanie Chan, Vincent Wu, Sheila Pinchin, Phillip Wattam, Leslie Flynn
- Evaluation of a multi-modality nutrition program for first year medical students by Andrea Guerin, Theresa Nowlan Suart, Shannon Willmott, Karen Kaur Grewal
- Assessing the Effect of the Eye Matching System on Clinical Competency with the Ophthalmoscope in Medical Students by Etienne Benard-Seguin, Jason Kwok, Walter Liao, Stephanie Baxter
- Curriculum to Cookbook by Moncia Mullin, Meghan Bhatia, Renee Fitzpatrick, Shelia Pinchin
- The CFMS National Wellness Challenge: evaluating a new initiative to promote development of healthy habits in medical professionals by Alyssa Lip, Renee Fitzpatrick
- Ontario Medical Students Association Wellness Retreat: A Program Evaluation by Shannon Chun, Renée Fitzpatrick, Queen’s University, Christine Prudhoe, University of Ottawa
- Evaluating Student’s Perspective of Team-Based Learning In Undergraduate Medical Education by Kate Trebuss, Vincent Wu, Jordan Goodridge, Gemma Cramarossa, Lindsay Davidson
- Preclerkship Interprofessional Observerships: What I Know Now by Shannon Willmott, Ameir Makar, Etienne Benard-Seguin, Sarah Edgerley, Lindsay Davidson
Next year’s conference is set for April 28 – May 1 in Halifax, NS. The abstract submission portal is already open. Find it here.
CCME 2016: We came, we saw, we presented!
It’s been a busy four days at the Canadian Conference on Medical Education in Montreal – five or six days for those involved in business meetings and pre-conference workshops that started on Thursday.
In addition to attending sessions, plenaries and business meetings, Queen’s contributors were lead authors, co-authors, supervisors, and collaborators with colleagues from other universities. We presented posters, led workshops, and gave oral presentations.
All told, close to 80 members of the Faculty of Health Sciences – faculty, administrative staff, and students – contributed to producing 36 workshops, oral presentations and posters. While not all of these people were in Montreal, Queen’s was well represented in the conference rooms.
We invited those participants to share information on their presentations as well as any thoughts they had about the conference itself. (Keep in mind that it’s been a jam-packed weekend and we weren’t able to track everybody down.) Here’s a sampling of what went on:
Alyssa Lip and Shannon Chun (MEDS 2017) gave an oral presentation on the progress of the Wellness Month Challenge which was developed by the Queen’s Mental Health and Wellness Committee. “This year, this challenge has expanded to 12 medical schools across Canada and reached 1085 medical students,” Alyssa noted. “In addition, we found a significant increase in resiliency in students surveyed before and after participation in the initiative.”
Laura Bosco and Jane Koylianskii (MEDS 2017) presented on the “Impact of Financial Management Module on Undergraduate Medical Students’ Financial Preparedness.”
“We created a novel web-based financial management educational module with the aim to educate medical students on the expenses of medical school, as well as the various sources of available funding, and outline the necessary steps to achieve the most financial support throughout undergraduate medical education,” Laura explained. “Our primary objective aimed to compare medical students’ financial stress prior to and following the completion of this financial management educational module. This issue is important because medical students often make residency and career decisions that are influenced by their accumulated financial debt, and we feel that the process of career selection and development should revolve around students’ interests, not financial barriers.”
Brandon Maser (MEDS 2016) presented a poster on the CFMS-FMEQ National Health and Wellbeing Survey. “The Canadian Federation of Medical Students and the Fédération médicale étudiante du Québec have worked together developing and implementing a national survey on medical student health and wellbeing at all 17 Canadian medical schools,” he said. “With approximately 40% national response, we now have a wealth of data on medical student health, and will be working with faculties and medical societies in order to elucidate risk and protective factors for medical student health, and to create recommendations for the improvement of supports and resources.”
Louisa Ho and Michelle D’Alessandro (MEDS 2017) presented on the Class of 2017’s Reads for Paeds project. “Reads for Paeds is a Queen’s medical student-led initiative that seeks to develop engaging, illustrated, and age-appropriate books for children with specific medical conditions,” Louisa explained. “Our study shows that participation in a student-developed and student-led service-learning project like Reads for Paeds can enhance students’ understanding and application of CanMEDS roles, thus benefitting their overall development as medical trainees.”
Jimin Lee (MEDS 2017) was one of several students who prepared the poster presention on Jr. Medics. “We evaluated the Jr. Medics program at Queen’s medical school as a service learning project,” she said. “We found that while engaging with the community by teaching basic first aid skills to local elementary school students, medical students developed competence in the CanMEDS roles as a communicator and professional. Our findings support the development of service learning opportunities for medical students with explicit learning values for students and quantifiable outcome in the community.”
Justin Wang (MEDS 2017) shared information on “SSTEPing into Clerkship”: A Technical Skills Elective Program for Second Year Medical Students, which was prepared with coauthors Tyson Savage, Peter (Thin) Vo, Dr. Andrea Winthrop, and Dr. Steve Mann“The Surgical Skills and Technology Elective Program is a 5-day summer elective program designed for second year medical students to teach and reinforce both basic and advanced technical skills ranging from suturing to chest tube insertion,” he said. “Anxiety as well as a lack of both knowledge and confidence in the performance of technical skills has been found to inhibit medical student involvement in real clinical settings. Our research found that anxiety was significantly decreased, confidence and knowledge were significantly increased, and objective technical skills were significantly improved immediately after program completion as well as 3-months later, demonstrating retention of these effects. These results support the use of a week-long surgical skills program prior to the start of clerkship for second year medical students.”
Alessia Gallipoli (MEDS 2017) presented her poster on an “”Investigation of the Cost of the CaRMS Process for Students”, completed with Dr Acker. “It looks at the average costs that graduating medical students can expect to pay in regards to different aspects of the residency application and interview process,” she said. “The results of this study may help students make informed decisions throughout the CaRMS process, to balance career ambitions with smart financial planning. It can also inform initiatives to support students both financially and with career planning throughout their training.”
Jason Kwok (MEDS 2017) presented on a novel method of teaching direct ophthalmoscopy to medical students in the current medical curriculum, where there is decreasing emphasis and time dedicated to ophthalmology. “Our learning method, which consists of a peer competition using an online optic nerve matching program that we created here at Queen’s University, effectively increases the self-directed practice, skill, and learning of direct ophthalmoscopy in medical students,” he said. “This learning exercise has been implemented in the first year Queen’s medical curriculum for the past two years with great success.”
Vincent Wu (MEDS 2018) noted, “The CCME serves as an avenue for us to present the accomplishments of the First Patient Program, as well as some of the unintended student learning themes. This research helps to further refine student learning within the undergraduate medical curriculum, in order to better understand healthcare delivery from the patient’s perspective.”
Adam Mosa (MEDS 2018) presented his research on using patient feedback for communication skills assessment in clerkship in a project entitled Sampling Patient Experience to Assess Communication: A Systematic Literature Review of Patient Feedback in Undergraduate Medical Education. “This project highlighted a paucity of studies on how to use patient feedback, which is an untapped source of learner-specific assessment of this fundamental CanMEDS competency,” Adam said. “CCME 2016 was a great place to meet like-minded educators. In particular, my suggestion for an “unconference” was chosen, and I spent time discussing the future of patient feedback with a diverse group of enthusiastic participants.”
Amy Acker (Pediatrics) presented a workshop with two other pediatric program directors (Moyez Ladhani and Hilary Writer from McMaster and Ottawa) to help give concrete suggestions for teaching and assessing some of the challenging non-medical expert competencies. “We came up with the idea and thought it was a session we would have liked to have attended when we started as PDs,” she explained. “We took participants through a blueprinting exercise to identify what they need to teach, resources they will need to teach and how to assess, in case-based format… hopefully everyone learned something!”
Catherine Donnelly (School of Rehabilitation Therapy) was the PI on the Compassionate Collaborative Care project, which was funded by AME “The Phoenix Project”. “The aim of the project is to support the development of compassionate care,” she said. “The output of the project was an online module intended for use by health care students, clinicians, educators and administrators. The module consists of 6 chapters that can be used independently or collectively. The modules have been pilot tested and evaluated with students and health care providers. The modules are open access and can be found here.
Karen Smith (Associate Dean, Continuing Professional Development), shared information on her team’s work: “I am here with my CPD and FD colleagues. We presented at the CPD Dean’s Business meeting on how to meet CACME accreditation standards. We will be sharing some of our scholarly work with posters and a workshop exploring aspects of what makes self-directed learning effective and what CanMEDS competencies are addressed in SDL and the impact of note-taking style on memory retention and reflection,” she said. “In addition to seeking the excellent feedback from our peers to advance our own work, we are learning from our peers. Networking and building relationships with others across Canada is key to our ongoing success.”
Sita Bhella (Department of Medicine) presented a usability study on an online module she designed and created with colleagues in Toronto aimed at improving the knowledge and comfort of general internal medicine residents in managing sickle cell disease on the wards and in outpatient settings. “Presenting at CCME introduced me to new ideas and research methodologies and I hope to continue to present my work there in the future,” she said in an email. “It was an honour to present my work at CCME and to interact and engage with colleagues across the country on research in medical education.”
Kelly Howse (Family Medicine) presented both a poster and workshop. The poster explored issues of Family Medicine Resident Wellness: Current Status and Barriers to Seeking Help.
“Residency training can be a very stressful time and may precipitate or exacerbate both physical and mental health issues. Residents, however, often avoid seeking help for their own personal health concerns,” she said. “The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of resident wellness in our Queen’s family medicine program, with particular attention to identifying barriers to seeking help.”
The Seminar she presented focused on Supporting Medical Students with Career Decisions: National Recommendations for Medical Student Career Advising. “Specialty decision-making and preparation for residency matching are significant sources of stress for medical students. Through the FMEC PG Implementation Project, Queen’s led the development of national recommendations regarding the guiding principles and essential elements of Medical Student Career Advising,” she said. “This workshop helped disseminate these recommendations nationally and will help guide the exploration of relevant career advising resources.”
In addition to presenting their own work, School of Medicine faculty served as mentors for the many student presentations. Lindsay Davidson (Director, Teaching, Learning & Innovation Committee) shared “This year, I’m proudly watching some of our second year students present the poster that we collaborated on, Pre-clerkship interprofessional observerships: evaluation of a pilot project. It has been a pleasure to watch the students come up with the idea, which grew out of their own experiences as participants in a new inter-professional shadowing initiative for first year students, develop the project and reach conclusions that are helping to shape our teaching here at Queen’s. In addition to providing students with experience in conducting educational research, the partnership of students and faculty on such projects is a strength of our UGME program.”
So that’s a bit of what we’ve been up to in Montreal. Oh, and the food was great, too!
With thanks to everyone who was able to make time to send me some information, and apologies to all I’ve left out, especially given that I sent my email request on Friday when many were already in Montreal or enroute. Feel free to send me information I can add as an update (the beauty of blog over print.)