Tag: history of medicine
“What Happened in Medicine?” Medical students ask Philadelphia
By Kelly Salman, photos by Rawy Shaaban, Queen’s medicine class of 2021
“The history quiz is due this weekend?!” a classmate pulled it up on his phone, while a few followed suit on laptops. We were waiting for the bus to take us to Philadelphia and while my peers debated the turbulent past of drug advertising, the rest of us talked about what we were excited to see. Many had plans for dramatic poses on the “Rocky steps” or near the Liberty Bell.
“What even is the liberty bell?” I shamelessly asked while googling the best spot to find cheesesteaks. The real reason we were heading over the border was for a history of medicine trip, the continuation of a long tradition for Queen’s Medicine students, one that started in 1996.
I can’t lie and say I’ve always appreciated history. Although I could fool you, or scare you, with my wide-eyed ramblings about how cool the plague must have been, history is an interest I’ve found late. But along my route to medicine, something romantic about the past has drawn me in, and I got the impression during this trip that I wasn’t alone. Perhaps it has something to do with entering a field that makes you take an oath to an ancient Greek guy, but as a group medical students seem somewhat enamoured with their own history.
Contrary to popular belief, history waits for no one, and we started our adventure early Saturday morning, coffees in hand. Pennsylvania Hospital was a great place to set the tone; I challenge anyone to sit in an old surgical amphitheatre and not get swept up in historical daydreams. It helped that our guide painted an incredible picture for us as we sat on elevated benches, peering down at a classmate sprawled out on the operating table. It’s the details that get you… for instance, the floor would have been covered in wood chips for soaking up, well, you can imagine. Or that the hospital opened its doors to those of the public curious to observe the spectacle. In a different life, I wondered, how many of us would have been in that audience.
We continued to a stately mansion, famous for housing a man modestly named “the Father of American Surgery”, or to his friends and family Dr. Philip Physick. The guide here had a slightly more blunt approach, but it fit with the narrative he was giving. As we perused Dr. Physick’s various inventions (surgical instruments and… soda), he told us about how uncommon it was for a patient to survive surgery in those early days of the field: “He tried some neurosurgery, but often ended up accidentally nicking a blood vessel and then it’s ‘you’re going to get very sleepy now’”. I left with the unsettling impression that surgery in the 18th century sounded a lot like making a recipe from scratch – trial and error.
If you’ve ever idly wondered what a slice of Einstein’s brain looks like, then the Mütter Museum is for you. So, basically everyone. It’s a medical smorgasbord, filled with oddities and ailments through time: atypical skeletons, preserved organs, a jar of human skin (why?!), and even a giant human colon. Perhaps more interesting was the history of how society responds to such anomalies, in an exhibit dedicated to the folklore and varied cultural attitudes surrounding birth defects across the world. No photos allowed, but check out their website for some extraordinary highlights!
As millennials we often forget what books look like, so it was a real treat to see the libraries. We marvelled at the mahogany grandeur of the Pennsylvania Hospital library, but my favourite was less insta-worthy (partly because pictures were ‘discouraged’). While half of the group looked through beautiful, hand-drawn anatomy pop-up texts, the rest of us were led along a meandering pathway through the College of Physicians of Philadelphia to a door reminiscent of a submarine airlock. We quietly filed into the largest collection of books I have ever set eyes on. It was a room of steel bookshelves, dusty and dimly lit, filled with medical literature and journals from the past. Peering through the holes in the floor, the stacks continued infinitely further down than my eyes, and frankly my brain, could comprehend. I tried to imagine all of the words below our feet, and thought it must be akin to what an astronaut feels looking back at the earth.
I know my words can’t compete with those of my medical ancestors hidden away in Philadelphia. But hopefully if you take anything from them, it’s an inkling of interest into the world behind us. Good and bad, whimsical, and downright gruesome at times, the history of medicine is incredibly important. Because, well, in the words of someone more eloquent than me “History never really says goodbye. History says ‘See you later.”
Oh and in case you were concerned, I did find time for a cheesesteak.
Third annual History of Medicine Week starts April 23
Museum of Healthcare Showcase
Grande Corridor, New Medical Building, 15 Arch St.
Hero or Villain? You be the judge! Wander through the Grand Corridor of the New Medical Building and enjoy the showcase curated by the Museum of Healthcare. At your leisure, take a look at artifacts of some of history’s biggest medical heroes and villains.
132A, New Medical Building, 15 Arch St.
Open Mic Night
The Grad Club, 162 Barrie St
Movie Night: History of Kingston Psychiatric Hospital
032A, New Medical Building, 15 Arch St.
Don’t miss out on this weeks closing event! We will be screening the film “The History of KPH” by Queen’s Film Studies’ own Janice Belanger. Come to learn more about the Kingston Psychiatric Hospital, and have a relaxing end to this jam-packed week!
Meet Jenna Healey, the new Hannah Chair in the History of Medicine
The new Jason A. Hannah Chair in the History of Medicine knows most Queen’s medical students aren’t going to memorize historical dates and events as a matter of routine, and that’s perfectly okay.
Dr. Jenna Healey notes that instead focusing on dry facts – that these days can readily be looked up — one excellent use of history is “to take a step back every once in a while and to think about the bigger picture.”
“Sometimes it’s easier to do that when you’re thinking historically because you have that little bit of distance. And then you can apply those same critical thinking skills to ongoing controversial issues or new things that come up within your career.”
“We might be looking at a bio-ethical case from the 1960s and, well, ‘they were so wrong,’ right? I’ve taught history of bioethics before, and we have to think about contemporarily, how did people understand what they were doing, what were the standards of their profession? Not necessarily to defend something that we now understand to be unethical, but to understand what the environment was like for those physicians – and then to think about what we find acceptable. Because, in 50 years, inevitably, someone is going to critique us.”
“Sometimes it’s easier to think about these things historically.”
Healey herself didn’t set out to become an historian – of medicine or anything else. Her undergraduate studies found her juggling her twin interests in humanities and science. To accommodate this, she pursued a combined arts & science program at the University of Guelph. “It was a Bachelor of Arts and Sciences,” she explains, “so basically a BA and a BSc at the same time.”
“I was doing an English literature degree along with a molecular biology degree and I was thinking about going to med school, maybe going into public health, and my other career in my head was to be a science journalist,” she shares. “Part of my program requirement was to take an introductory history of science course because you sort of had to combine the two – and I really liked it. So I ended up getting a summer job in the history department as a research assistant; and then the next summer I worked there, too.”
That’s when she started learning about the history of medicine as a discipline. This led her to do a master’s degree in the history of science at the University of Toronto, and later a PhD at Yale. “And I just never left,” she says.
“It turned out to be a very good way to combine my two interests,” she adds, “And to stay within the world of medicine and science without becoming a clinician.”
Prior to being appointed to her position at Queen’s on August 1, Healey was a lecturer at Yale, where she mainly taught pre-medical students. “I’m really excited to have the opportunity to work directly with medical students,” she says.
She hopes much of what she brings to students is that focus on the big picture.
“I want them to think think critically both about the past of the profession, and as cliché as it may be, to learn from the mistakes of the past, and the paternalism of the past, and to really think about themselves as part both of a longer historical legacy, to think about the socio-economic determinants of health,” she explains. “I think history really helps with that: to think about why is our health care system the way it is? How do your patients perceive the medical profession? How does the public perceive medicine? What are the notions they are coming in with?”
Healey also hopes to help students “think critically about the ways new technologies are going to change patient care and the clinical experience, both for physicians and for patients, because technology is something I’m really interested in.”
Healey recognizes that it can be a challenge to “sell” students on the value of spending time on the history of medicine – something her predecessor, Dr. Jacalyn Duffin did in the position for 30 years before her retirement.
“I think you always have to do a bit of justification for why you’re even learning this, and I understand that, as someone who was an undergraduate in the sciences: There is just a lot to do,” Healey says. “There’s a lot to learn, there’s a lot to memorize, a lot of labs to finish. And it’s hard to see, maybe the relevance in that moment, because you just have so much to finish.
“I think, especially in a medicine curriculum, it’s to constantly say ‘it’s ok to take this hour’; this is worth learning, and to get across the idea that people who haven’t taken a lot of history think it’s just a lot of boring facts, and that the point of it is to memorize those facts – and that’s not it at all
“If you leave medical school here and you don’t remember all the details of Harvey’s discovery of circulation, I’m fine with that,” she says. “But it’s more the critical thinking and the historical thinking. And when you do encounter a problem in your career, you can think: how did things get this way? If people take that away, I’d be very happy with that.”
In addition to the lectures and other learning events she has already been working on, Healey has met with members of the student-run History of Medicine group.
“It was exciting for me to get here and see there was already an established a group of students who are very excited about the history of medicine – and that’s all a credit to Dr. Duffin and the program she already had in place and the students are so fired up and excited about it.”
There’s already talk of the next “History of Medicine” trip. “I think it’s a great tradition and I’m really excited about it,” she says, noting all the planning is student-led and logistics (including destination) are in the works.
Dr. Healey will soon be settled into her new office at 80 Barrie Street and looks forward to meeting more students and colleagues.
“I’m very excited and very happy to be here.”
For more on the Ontario Hannah Chairs, check out this link.
The Value of Medical History
By Sallya Aleboyeh, MEDS 2019
A group of passionate and curious medical students chose to venture to Ottawa on the Family Day weekend this past February. Instead of visiting their families, they dove into history, with a group of equally-passionate curators and assistant legislators to Elizabeth May who also gave up time to give us private tours of:
- The Preservation Centre in Gatineau, which houses vaults filled with paintings, media and lots of important archives
- The Museum of Science and Technology’s Storage Facility (which is apparently cooler than the museum itself)
This year was the final time Dr. Jacklyn Duffin, Hannah Professor in the History of Medicine, organized the history of medicine trip, making the fate of future trips uncertain. So instead of telling you how cool everything was (hopefully the photos can show that), I thought I’d share the value I see in keeping the tradition alive.
1. Cool Architecture: The Role of design, décor and architecture in medicine
Arriving at our first stop, the Gatineau Preservation Centre, what stood out most was the architecture. The vaults were inside a huge cement box that looked like the set of a parkour film; while the top floor, where restoration was done, resembled a Lego village complete with primary colour paints and street names for corridors. Whether you cared about the science behind restoring artifacts or not, the design was very hard to ignore.
On a day-to-day basis, physicians not only interact with patients, but with their environment as well. While it’s not practical or financially viable to have an architect design each hospital as a unique piece of art, the impact of space is large enough to warrant investing some thought. There are already lots of examples of environment helping with patient or doctor experiences:
- Having windows in the ICU rooms to help with delirium
- Having paintings/magazines in waiting rooms to make wait times seem shorter
- Having healing gardens to reduce stress for patients and health care workers
- Having cartoon characters on walls in children’s hospitals
- Having the nursing station in the middle of a room, visible to all patients, to reduce anxiety
- Decorating your office with pictures of family to make working there more enjoyable.
(for more evidence of the importance of environment in health- check out this NYT article here!)
Obviously, during an emergency, it won’t matter how aesthetically pleasing the sheets or walls are, but the vast majority of hospital interactions with patients and among health care workers aren’t immediately urgent. In these instances, a little interior design can work its subtle magic on people’s mood and their interactions because we all (I think) appreciate pretty things. It’s why chefs create garnishes and why companies invest in packaging. In the long run these small effects can add up to increase overall wellbeing and happiness.
2. Studying History is humbling and reminds you that your actions might outlive you
If you’ve ever been to a really old place, you’ll know that you get a strange surreal feeling, like you are experiencing something bigger than yourself (hopefully it’s not just me). When I was 16 and my mom took me to the ruins of Persepolis (wiki: “the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire”) and I felt it for the first time while trying to imagine what it looked like thousands of years ago before Alexander attacked it. It reminds you at once of how insignificant you are and how capable you are of creating something that can last for generations after you are gone.
The profession of medicine can be demanding: long hours, bad news, on call shifts, high stake decisions and emotional fatigue to name but a few. It’s in these moments when remembering that you’re working towards something bigger helps. One day when we’ve all left this planet, curators, historians and medical students may look through the ultrasound machines, pacemakers and lounge room coffee machines we used and try to uncover the story of our daily lives. We can’t predict which of the thousands of items we see and use in our lifetime will survive as artifacts, but we can choose what kind of story they tell.
3. History is full of lessons and wisdom
Finally, most important of all is that history is an endless resource of wisdom and lessons. We constantly look to our tutors, teachers and mentors for guidance for medicine because it’s easily accessible; but why stop there?
From history you can learn to be creative, and to draw inspiration from new places. Over the course of the weekend, we saw multiple examples of technology from other industries being adapted to medicine.
- The cloth used to make sails being used as a backing for fragile paintings
- Ultrasound machines being used to detect aircraft defects and in the navy before being applied to medicine
- The Fibroscan for the liver coming from cheese manufacturing (I technically learnt this in class after the trip but it helps prove the point)
History’s mistakes teach us to not just accept what we’ve been told but to dig deeper and ask questions because things may not be what they seem. During our visit to the Storage room, the curator’s personal research on artifacts in the storage revealed that Sir William Osler – a great Canadian medical teacher – may have used the remains of aboriginal bodies for research purposes. Another inquiry led the curator to discover that models of babies with syphilis were used to promote eugenics and not medical education as previously believed. If we remain passive in our learning and acceptance of new information, it’s often the patient who will pay the price.
(In conclusion) I hope there will be many more history of medicine trips to come because there is still a lot that history can teach us (and lots of cities to be seen) before we begin our practices.
A version of this blog post appeared previously on the Medicine and Literature blog. Find it here. Thanks to Sallya Aleboyeh for her permission to repost it here.
History of Medicine week highlights psychiatry
Dangerous Ideas in the History of Psychiatry is the theme of this year’s History of Medicine week here at Queen’s UGME.
Highlights for the week include a panel discussion with speakers from Queen’s, York University, and University of Toronto and an artifact showcase.
The Panel Discussion will take place on Wednesday, March 8 from 5 – 7 p.m. in Room 132 of the Medical Building on Arch Street; refreshments will be served.
Panelists will include:
Dr. Megan Davies, York University
- “Messy History: Democratising the Story of Deinstitutionalization”
Dr. Edward Shorter, University of Toronto
- “Dangerous Ideas in the History of Psychiatry: ‘Hysteria’”
Prof. Steven Maynard, Queen’s University
- “Just Who Are You Calling a Dangerous Sexual Psychopath?: Psychiatry and the History of Homosexuality in Canada”
The Artifact Showcase will be found in the Medical Building Atrium on Thursday, March 9 from 9 a.m. – 3p.m. This drop-in exhibit will feature items from the history of psychiatry curated by the Museum of Health Care.
Both events are open to the public.
A student committee organized the week, supported by the School of Medicine and the Museum of Health Care. Student organizers included Ashna Asim, Yannay Khaikan, Harry Chandrakumaran, Chantal Valiquette along with executive members Daisy Liu, Hissan Butt and Laura Swaka. Dr. Jacklyn Duffin, Hannah Professor of the Hannah Chair in the History of Medicine at Queen’s, served as their faculty advisor.