I have no time…
By Adrian Baranchuk MD FACC FRCPC FCCS
Division of Cardiology, Kingston Health Science Center, Queen’s University
“A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.” ~ Charles Darwin, The Life & Letters of Charles Darwin
“I have no time.”
I have heard this sentence on several occasions.
I have heard this from my co-workers, staff, fellows, residents, nurses, and managers. I have heard this from friends – who used to spend long hours chatting, laughing and playing music – but now, they have no time.
I have heard this from close family members who have exclaimed, “I have no time.”
Finally, I have heard this sentence – the same four words – said by myself. It has become part of the dialectic armamentarium that I use upon invitations – “I have no time.”
Time has become a valuable commodity.
As academicians, our job descriptions specify the “time” allocated to different roles: (i) “time” for clinical work, (ii) “time” for teaching, (iii) “time” for research. We call the latter “protected time.” The notion that our time is “protected” is comforting. We are protected. Our “time” is protected.
The structure of our life is built around time; it accepts different metrics, depending the cultural background, the level of education, and the earnings and savings.
It is “time” for you to move to your own house.
It is “time” for you to further your career.
It is “time” for you to get married and start a family.
It is “time” for you to retire.
Although time can provide structure and discipline, it has become a regulator of our abilities to do something during our life.
Inadvertently, or not, we also use time to structure the life of others, such as family members, employees, or trainees. The ability to guide – or manipulate – someone by regulating the time they spend under one’s supervision is more powerful than any other form of intervention, such as encouragement, motivation, salary, or recognition. Nothing compares to the impact that “time” regulation has over our actions, either voluntary or mandatory.
In that sense, we self-allocate “time” to activities that we perceive as meaningful or enjoyable, such as going to the gym, conversing with partners, reading a book, et cetera. Violating this principle is a trigger for anxiety and frustration. The feeling of guilt that we experience when doing something that we perceive is in place of another timely activity – despite being part of human emotions – is a source of discontent.
There is not a generalized approach to using “time” wisely – it is individualized. We go through life, with more or less success, defying our own chronometer to do some of the things that we have dreamt, and we allocate the “time” that we speculate we have to reach those goals.
Few years ago, I found myself overwhelmed with work. My mentor called from the other side of the Atlantic and I responded without much enthusiasm. The wise man of only 83 years of age recognized my exhaustion and told me, “You sound too busy…you are doing too many things at the same time…you should slow down.” Rather than taking the advice with sincerity and consider reducing my workload, it agitated me. I replied, “What do you want me to do? I have no time.”
I said “I have no time” to my 83-year-old mentor who has, from a statistical point of view, much less time than me to accomplish his dreams.
There was a period of silence on the phone line. Some say that more than 23 s of silence between two individuals is the most tolerable duration before one of the two individuals breaks the moment with a comment; after about 10 to 12 s, I said “are you there?” He replied, “I was wondering whether you have time to think?” I have not forgotten this phrase since it was spoken many years ago.
When did I lose my capacity for contemplation? When did I sacrifice my ability to enjoy doing nothing? The “dolce far niente” (“sweet doing nothing”) that the Italians have immortalized. Albert Einstein said, “Time is an illusion.” Does the perceived lack of time represent the absence of illusions? How do we regain, in this world of immediacies, the ambition of living in a world of illusions? How relevant, for the creative process of enjoying your life (and be productive) is to have illusions?
While Mahatma Gandhi taught us that “there is more to life than simply increasing its speed;” Benjamin Franklin has counteroffered that “lost time is never found again.”
If we live in this world with a constant perception of not having “time,” how are we going to construct memories that at some point may be our only companion in life? Are we losing the ability to contemplate? Does this affect our ability to relate to our patients if we have no time to connect with them?
One of my other mentors – after consultation with a patient in the hospital ward – once asked me what book the patient was reading. “I have no clue” was my immediate answer, all the while skeptical about how this would relate to patient care. I did not understand at the time that our ability to contemplate and have holistic views will aid us as physicians to relate to the patient, which is a skill that is of immense value.
Where do ideas come from? How do we connect an idea with the creative process and the systematic work flow to move it into action? How does an idea move forward into realization?
Apparently, “time” is the key that regulates this process. Time is the precious commodity that we all want to attain – despite where we live and work, and how our family is structured – and we are all “offered” the same total amount every day.
So far, we have not been able to create “time.” We have not succeeded in having 25 h in a day. We have to resolve the enigma of how to distribute our efforts and energy throughout the same amount of minutes and seconds in a day. A strict 24 h per day.
I would like to teach my students to use their time wisely so as to enjoy their life and balance their ambitions. I want my students to be happy, and help them evolve not only as great scientists but also happy and content individuals. I want my students to have time to contemplate and think freely as such that time is not a factor that regulates their decisions.
I only wrote this piece today because I had convinced myself that I had no time before.
I propose to the readers to exercise the search of finding time for what they really want to do with their lives. Perhaps allowing a few minutes a day to do what they did not find “time” to do lately.
Because the “time” that we think we do not have, is out there. It is a matter of learning how to grasp it and to make it ours.
It is time to do it.
To Sohaib Haseeb for editing the first draft. To Gustavo Bonzon for his translation into Spanish.
Creative Commons Image from: https://www.deviantart.com/mariana-a/art/She-saw-the-time-passing-by-new-350524188
Latest Exceptional Healer winners announced
The latest Exceptional Healer: Patient and Family-Centred Award for the Kingston Health Sciences Centre were presented recently. The EH award competition, which is in its third year, now includes a separate award for nurses. The two selection were unequivocal in choosing Dr. Maria Velez, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, and nurse Tracey Froess in the Cancer Centre as exemplars in patient and family-centred care, Susan Bedell shares.
Of Valez, one patient wrote: “She made me feel human in a medical world.” Another added: “I’m so pleased that Dr. Velez works for a teaching hospital as new (and experienced) doctors have much to learn from her in terms of benevolent, flexible, and accessible patient-centred care.”
One patient wrote that Froess’ “passion and dedication to her patients shines brightly!” while another noted she “routinely empowers families to take ownership of their situation identifying what will work best for them and delivering it.”
Over the last three years, the following individuals have been awarded the Exceptional Healer Award:
2017 Dr. Richard Henry – Anesthesiology & Chronic Pain Clinic
Dr. Tom Gonder – Ophthalmology & Retina Specialist
2018 Dr. Shawna Johnston – Obstetrics & Gynaecology
2019 Dr. Maria Velez, Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Nurse Tracey Froess – Cancer Centre
Patients, family members, staff, and students learning at KHSC are encouraged to submit nominations each year.
Here is more about Dr. Maria Valez and Nurse Tracey Froess, from the original blog post from the KHSC site:
Masters in the art of listening
By Christine Maloney
Putting patients and families at the centre of their care has earned nurse Tracey Froess and Dr. Maria del Pilar Vélez Kingston Health Sciences Centre’s (KHSC) Exceptional Healer Awards.
Froess and Dr. Vélez were among 22 nurses and physicians nominated by patients, families and staff for the annual award. Originally created by the Patient & Family Advisory Council, it honours those who demonstrate the core concepts of patient- and family-centred care, dignity and respect, participation and collaboration.
For Dr. Vélez, an obstetrician and gynecologist focused on improving women’s reproductive health, her success goes beyond having knowledge, skills and dedication.
“I believe in showing compassion, and especially, to listening to patients and acknowledging the importance of their needs,” she says.
The patient who nominated Dr. Vélez felt supported and empowered throughout her care, writing in her nomination “She wanted to hear what I had to say first.” and “She went at my pace and in the directions and options I wanted to explore. I felt she understood what my values were and did everything she could to accommodate them.”
The winner in the nurse category this year, Tracey Froess works in one of KHSC’s cancer clinic. Her patient’s expressed their appreciation by saying “Tracey always took the time to listen to our concerns and we never felt rushed. We always felt respected and valued. She made the whole experience more comforting.”
“I learned from another esteemed colleague to really listen to your patients,” Froess wrote when asked about her secret to patient-care success. “This advice has always done me well in my career.”
Upon reflecting on what it means to receive an Exceptional Healer Award, both Froess and Dr. Vélez were quick to acknowledge those around them.
“It makes me realize that I have been lucky to work in the right place, with a great team, which has had a positive impact on my care of patients,” said Dr. Vélez.
Froess added, “KHSC is full of exceptional healers. I know… I’ve been fortunate to work along side them every day.”
A holiday reading list on leadership and change
In his keynote address at the UGME fall faculty retreat on December 10, Dr. Gary Tithecott addressed the topic of Leading change for success in medical education during challenging times. Dr. Tithecott is Associate Dean, Undergraduate Medical Education at Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University.
During his presentation, Dr. Tithecott cited a few books and mentioned others as worth delving into. As I like to do here, I’ve created a “Top 5” list from those he mentioned (OK, it’s actually six books, as he recommended two from a single author). These books are practical and accessible reads with clear advice, he said.
There’s still time to add some or all of these to your holiday wish list.
Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol S. Dweck
The traditional attitude – Fixed Mindset – dictated that your fate is determined by skill you have genetically and that you demonstrate, Dr. Tithecott explained. With a Growth Mindset , by contrast, asserts that with dedication, encouragement and effort you can learn from and with others to increase your ceiling.
Since one key responsibility for a leader is to develop other people, a Growth Mindset is essential, he said. Citing an article from Forbes magazine, he noted a Growth Mindset allows leaders to
- Be open-minded
- Be comfortable with ambiguity & uncertainty
- Have strong situational awareness
- have a greater sense of preparedness
- have clarity on what others expect
- Take ownership
- Grow with people
- Eliminate mediocrity and complacency
- Break down silos
Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance by Angela Duckworth
One key to success in leadership, Tithecott said, is in the power of working hard and sticking to it. For a leader it’s supporting someone to go outside of their box. He quoted Duckworth:
Grit, in a word, is stamina. But it’s not just stamina in your effort. It’s also stamina in your direction, stamina in your interests. If you are working on different things but all of them very hard, you’re not really going to get anywhere. You’ll never become an expert.
Leading Change and XLR8 by John P. Kotter
OK, this is actually TWO books, not one. Noting that no talk on change and change leadership is complete without including Kotter, Dr. Tithecott recommended both Leading Change and the more recent XLR8.
He reviewed Kotter’s list of why change fails:
- Not Establishing a Great Enough Sense of Urgency
- Not Creating a Powerful Enough Guiding Coalition
- Lacking a Vision
- Under communicating the Vision by a Factor of Ten
- Not Removing Obstacles to the New Vision
- Not Systematically Planning for, and Creating, Short-Term Wins
- Declaring Victory Too Soon
- Not Anchoring Changes in the Corporation’s Culture
Leaders Eat Last: Why Some Teams Pull Together and Others Don’t by Simon Sinek
The symbolism of leaders eating last – exemplified by the US Marine Corp chow line, described by Sinek – points to leaders who put their team first. This in turn, leads to more acceptance of the challenges of change, Tithecott said.
The Leader Who Had No Title by Robin Sharma
Leadership can be found in different places and doesn’t necessarily mean the person “at the top”. Where and how leadership for change can be developed can vary, Tithecott said, recommending Sharma’s book.
The special challenges of researching teaching and learning
[Italics indicates a hyperlink]
We’re passionate about teaching and learning and equally passionate about evidence-based medicine. So, it follows that we’re also interested in evidence-based teaching methods. That translates into interest in Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) at the School of Medicine.
This means we have teachers interested in conducting research studies about their teaching and in finding better ways to help students learn. This is a particularly challenging type of research that raises unique issues about power, confidentiality, captive populations, and the burden on participants.
The Queen’s General Research Ethics Board (GREB) issued a four-page guideline document on Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) in June 2017.
As much of the research conducted by those involved in the UGME program focuses on SoTL – and the HSREB is aligned with the Queen’s GREB – these Guidelines are relevant to research considerations for both faculty, staff, and student-led projects.
The Guidelines document draws attention to studies with direct student involvement, as well as self-studies, which both have implications for student privacy, including during the research dissemination process.
For studies with direct student involvement, other considerations that are highlighted include:
The power-over relationships between instructors/researchers and students can impact the students’ decision to participate in the research. This differential can be managed by keeping the instructors/researchers at arm’s length from the students by person or time [with suggestions provided]
This term can be applied when participants are dependent on an ‘authority figure’ (e.g., instructor/researcher) who can infringe on their freedom to make decisions. [Guideline include ways to mitigate this risk.]
The main purpose of formal education is for students to gain knowledge, not to be participants in research. If students are repeatedly asked to participate in research studies, their educational pursuits may be compromised. It may be of value for instructors/researchers to consider what other types of research are being conducted with students to diminish the impact of participant burden. Also, instructors/researchers should try to design studies that help enrich the students’ educational experiences instead of distracting from those experiences.
Students may have concerns about whether or not their instructors/researchers know if they took part in the research. Students may feel their decision not to participate in the research could impact their academic trajectory. [Includes suggestions for how to mitigate this risk].
[Excerpts from pages 2-3 of the Guideline]
If you’re interested in creating a study related to your teaching in the UGME program, feel free to get in touch with the Education Team to talk through some of these challenges. We’re here to help.
Making the most of features on Queen’s Library website
By Suzanne Maranda, Head Health Sciences Librarian, Queen’s University Library
[Editor’s note: text in italics indicates a hyperlink]
After I demonstrated the Queen’s University Library (QUL) website at the December 2017 UGME Curriculum retreat, Dr Sanfilippo asked me to prepare an entry for this blog with further information about the site. The changes to the website that occurred in the fall of 2016 were quite dramatic and many of you sent us feedback about the new QUL web pages. During the 16 months since the new QUL website was launched, the librarians collected this user feedback and worked closely with the Library staff to implement a few features that would benefit all our users.
The QUL website was redesigned to offer access to all services and resources via the main page. The main library page has an extensive top bar menu that remains on all library pages and can lead users to all the central services, including the library catalogue (QCAT) and Summon, our discovery tool, as well as to the specific subject areas, such as health sciences. For the Health Sciences community there are now two types of library web pages:
- The Bracken Library physical space page: this is where you reserve a library group room, check our hours and other services related to the physical collection (e.g. signing books out, requesting materials) and using the library spaces.
- The health sciences collections subject page: this is where you find access to health sciences databases and resources such as the point-of-care tools, mobile apps, multimedia materials. This page is grouped with all the other subject pages on campus, which you can find on any library page under “Search/Research by Subject” in the top banner and menu.
Based on user feedback, the Health Sciences subject guide was edited in 2017 to provide quick access to health sciences resources. Some of the most important resources are now at the top of the page, e.g. Medline, CINAHL, PubMed1 and Point-of-Care tools. You will however want to look at the subject guides prepared by librarians to support your research and teaching information needs. There are subject guides for Nursing, Medicine, Rehabilitation Therapy, and Life Sciences and Biochemistry. To access health sciences resources quickly, add the relevant subject guide link to your web browser favourites list and learning management software for students in your classes. We also have guides that highlight resources for specific programs or topics (e.g. Aging and Health, History of Medicine), and guides that are more about tools such as citation management, avoiding predatory publishers and the one with approaches and resources to develop systematic reviews and other syntheses. Check out the complete list of guides on the Health Sciences Subject page.
These guides are prepared for you BUT we would love your input: if anything you find worthwhile could be added to the list of resources, please let us know. Any resource format can be included in addition to books and journals: websites, videos, images… if you find something useful, whether in our library collection or on the web (for the latter we will ensure that it can be shared widely), please send us a note. And of course, if you think that a new guide could be developed to support your teaching and research areas, please contact us.
Best wishes for happy searching and be sure to reach out if librarians can help you locate and organize information (remember, we love doing this and just maybe… you have other things to do!). Please continue to tell us what you think of the new library web pages.
1Note that searching Pubmed via a library page brings all the links to full-text available via the QUL collections.
New and improved resources for teaching, research and clinical application
By Suzanne Maranda, Head Health Sciences Librarian, Queen’s University Library
(Italics indicates a hyperlink)
Are you looking for images to include in your presentations or online modules? Two Thieme products are now available online and any materials from these two resources, one in Anatomy and the other in Pharmacology, can be extracted and included in any materials that will be used in a Queen’s course or presentation. Please contact me if you would like the complete license agreement.
Usage statistics of these resources will be collected to inform our decision about renewing or not. There are two other products (Physiology and Biochemistry) from the same publisher that could be added if requested and if funds permit. The two subjects purchased were chosen in consultation with the staff preparing online modules for the BHSC program.
The other tool I would like to highlight is relatively new as it was added in September 2017. Read by QxMD is a mobile app that enables a more direct link to the journal articles subscribed by the Library and to open access journals. The link provided here is to the page of all our mobile apps, please scroll to the instructions on how to get Read to work with the Queen’s resources. When you set up a profile, you can receive email notifications of new articles that match your profile. Check out the new “medical education” option that I requested be added. This company is quite responsive, I would be happy to pass on other topic/category suggestions.
Isabel is a diagnostic support tool that can be useful in clinics and possibly for teaching clinical skills. In December 2017 the librarians participated in a webinar with the developer of Isabel to review software enhancements.
Once a few symptoms are entered, a list of possible conditions is presented for follow-up, the coloured bar on the side (see green arrow) of the list indicates the strength of the likelihood (red is best). Notice the separate tab at the top of the results box for possible drugs ( ) that may cause the symptoms you entered. By clicking on a condition, you are taken to the Dynamed entry by default. If there is no Dynamed entry, then we link to BMJ Best Practice. A few other resources have been added for linking, you see these in the left hand box, so that one can choose to look at a different resource, or even consult more than one. There is a mobile version of this clinical tool, see instructions on our mobile apps guide.
I hope you will try Isabel and consider completing the online survey (at the red arrow) that is linked from the Isabel pages to ask for your feedback about this resource.
As always, do contact us if you have any questions about the above resources or anything else information-related.
Teaching, Learning and Integration Committee Summer Update
By Lindsay Davidson, Director of Teaching, Learning, and Integration
As classes (at least in years 1 and 2) have now ended, and teachers are perhaps thinking about courses that will resume in the fall, I wanted to provide you with an update of items from the TLIC. Some of these may already be familiar to you, but perhaps some are “new”. If you need any further information, please feel free to contact me directly or one of our Educational Developers (Theresa Suart from Years 1 and 2 and Sheila Pinchin for Clerkship and the “C” courses).
- Resources attached to learning events – these include lecture notes, classroom slides, required pre-class readings and optional post-class readings/resources. MEdTech is enabling a new feature for the upcoming academic year. Teachers will be required to review and “publish” each resource every year – with the option of adding in delayed release if appropriate. The goal of this is to provide students with an up-to-date, curated set of resources, deleting old files. Please direct any questions about this to Dr. Lindsay Davidson.
- Remember: “less is more”: Students report that when there are an excessive number of files, they often read few/none of them in advance.
- Clearly designate what is MANDATORY to review PRE-CLASS by indicating this in the “Preparation” field on the learning event, and checking the appropriate boxes on the menu when you review the resources.
- AVOID using dates on your slides/slide file names – students are sometimes disappointed to see that the file dates from 2009 or prior.
- The Curriculum Committee has approved a new learning event type – “Games” – reflecting several sessions already existing in the curriculum. This is defined as “Individual or group games that have cognitive, social, behavioral, and/or emotional, etc., dimensions which are related to educational objectives”. This type of activity might include classroom Jeopardy or other similar activities designed to allow students to review previously taught knowledge (content delivered either independently or in the classroom) and to provide them with formative feedback on their understanding. The instructional methods approved by the Curriculum Committee include:
Please direct any questions about this to Theresa Suart.
- Workforce – The Workforce Committee has recently adopted some changes including the following:
- Addition of credit for teachers who grade short answer questions or team worksheets
- Doubling of credit for teachers who develop new (or significantly renovate) teaching session
- Limit of one named teacher per DIL event
- Limit of one teacher per SGL event (gets additional credit to reflect session design, learning event completion, submission exam questions); additional teachers credited as tutors (credit for time in the classroom) – the Course Director may be asked to clarify who is the “teacher” and who is/are the “tutors”
- Reduction of credit for large classroom sessions (that are not new/newly renovated and/or do not involve grading)
Please direct any questions about this to Dr. Sanfilippo.
- Tagging of Intrinsic Role objectives. The TLIC and the Intrinsic Role leads recently held a retreat. One of the items that was identified was “overtagging” of sessional objectives with intrinsic role objectives such as communicator, collaborator, professional etc. by well meaning teachers. We are undertaking a comprehensive review of how these Intrinsic Roles are taught/assessed in the curriculum and would ask teachers/course directors NOT to tag sessions with these unless there has been a direct communication with the relevant Intrinsic Role lead.
- Communicator: Dr. Cherie Jones: email@example.com
- Collaborator: Dr. Lindsay Davidson: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Leader: Dr. Tony Sanfilippo: email@example.com
- Advocate: Dr. Jenn Carpenter firstname.lastname@example.org
- Professional: Dr. Rachel Rooney rooneyr@KGH.KARI.NET
- Scholar: Dr. Heather Murray email@example.com
Please direct any questions about this to Dr. Lindsay Davidson.
- DIL feedback from students. Over the past year, we have received useful feedback from students regarding the content and structure of Directed Independent Learning (DIL) sessions in Years 1 and 2. This will be collated and communicated to Course Directors shortly. Theresa Suart will be in contact with teachers/Course Directors should any sessions be identified for review/revision.
- Online modules. We have developed a process to facilitate the development of high quality online modules, often used as resources in DIL session. These are highly appreciated by students and are used for review in clerkship as well as pre-MCC exam. The current list of modules is available here: https://meds.queensu.ca/central/community/ugme_ecurriculum If you would like to create (or revise) a module for your course, please complete the linked intake form: https://healthsci.queensu.ca/technology/services/elearning/online_learning_modules/get_help
- New wording of learning event notices. You may have noticed this over the past year. The wording of the 3 email notices received by teachers has been revised. In particular, it has been streamlined and customized to provide specific, focused reminders prior to the scheduled teaching. We would appreciate any feedback or suggestions that you have about this change.
- Video capture In 2016-17, lecture sessions were video captured in select year 1 and 2 classes. We will be analyzing how these videos were used by students over the summer and will likely be continuing this into the fall. Please provide any feedback or comments that you have about this pilot to Theresa Suart.
Feel free to get in touch:
- Dr. Lindsay Davidson – firstname.lastname@example.org
- Sheila Pinchin – email@example.com
- Theresa Suart – firstname.lastname@example.org
Using Copyrighted Images in an Educational Setting: A Primer
By Mark Swartz, Copyright Specialist
Understanding a few of the basic concepts behind Copyright law can help explain why some images can be used in certain situations and others cannot. The most useful concept to consider when thinking about how images can be used is balance.
A Balancing Act
In the landmark Supreme Court case Théberge v Galerie d’Art du Petit Champlain Inc, Justice Ian Binnie characterizes Copyright Law with the following statement:
The Copyright Act is usually presented as a balance between promoting the public interest in the encouragement and dissemination of works of the arts and intellect and obtaining a just reward for the creator.
When you create a work, whether it is a book or an article, a photograph, a painting or any of the other types of expression covered by copyright (Copyright Act, RSC 1985, c C-42, s 5 retrieved on 2015-10-16), you automatically get a bundle of exclusive rights to that work. These rights include the right to copy, to distribute, and to assign your rights to others. The full sets of rights that you get are listed in the Act (Copyright Act, RSC 1985, c C-42, s 3 retrieved on 2015-10-16). And, while these rights are exclusive, they are limited in both time and scope. The balance between exclusive rights and limitations ensures that creators are fairly compensated for their work, while still allowing for some permission-free uses in ways that contribute to the public good.
Limitations to the exclusive rights of copyright holders include the following:
- Copyright protection does not last forever. In Canada, the general rule is that Copyright lasts for 50 years after the death of the copyright holder. After that point, the work will fall into the public domain and can be used for any purpose.
- The Copyright Act lists a number of situations where Copyrighted works can be used with permission from Copyright holders. These situations are called exceptions. The most well-known exception is called the fair dealing exception, which allows for some use of copyrighted material, as long as the use falls under one of the purposes listed in the Act, and if the dealing is fair (Copyright Act, RSC 1985, c C-42, s 29.1 retrieved on 2015-10-16).
If you have determined that you are using a copyright protected image, you need to get permission from the copyright holder or you must ensure that your use falls under one of the exceptions in the Copyright Act.
So what does this mean if I want to use images in my class?
There are a wide variety of exceptions that apply to the use of copyrighted images in a closed, educational setting like a classroom or a Learning Management System. In the classroom, there is an exception that permits the reproduction of copyrighted images for use in PowerPoint presentations on campus (Copyright Act, RSC 1985, c C-42, s 29.4 retrieved on 2015-10-16). Additionally, fair dealing and the publically available materials exception will allow for the inclusion of many images in PowerPoint slides uploaded to Learning Management Systems like MEdtech. For more information, please see the In the Classroom and the On the Internet sections of the copyright and teaching section of my website.
As for images used in student assignments and presentations, most of the images used by students are likely to fall under the fair dealing exception. I do, however, always recommend that students do their best to find copyright free (or suitably licensed) images, so that when students leave the university and are asked to use images in the workplace, they know how to find images that can be easily used without having to get permission. Suggestions for finding these types of images are available on the Resources page of the copyright and teaching section of my website.
What about using images in materials that I post to the open web? What about images in conference presentations, posters and in research projects?
When you move from a closed environment like a Learning Management System to an open environment, it becomes more difficult to rely on exceptions like fair dealing, particularly if you intend to use your work for commercial purposes at any point.
In these situations, I would avoid using copyright protected images without permission and instead rely on finding works that are either licensed through the Creative Commons or that are in the public domain. The “resources” link I included in the section above provides some resources for finding these types of images. Images used in conference presentations and posters are much more likely to be fair than those on the open web, but I would be careful posting these presentations and posters on conference websites.
Finally, most images used in research projects and theses are likely to be fair dealing. One complication is that if you are going to publish in a traditional journal or publication, it is likely that the publisher will require that you get permission for everything. Fair dealing is often perceived to be too much of a risk for these publishers, so, if you are going to go that route, make sure you find materials where permission can be granted easily or is not required.
This is just a brief overview outlining some of the main image-related considerations that you might come across as an instructor or researcher. If you have any further questions about the use of images, please get in touch with me at extension 78510 or at email@example.com.
Théberge v. Galerie d’Art du Petit Champlain inc.,  2 SCR 336, 2002 SCC 34 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/51tn> retrieved on 2015-10-16.
Copyright Act, RSC 1985, c C-42, s 29.1 <http://canlii.ca/t/52hd7> retrieved on 2015-10-16.
Bringing things into focus: Using focus groups to collect feedback
By Theresa Suart & Eleni Katsoulas
Amongst the plethora of student feedback we solicit about our courses, you may wonder why we sometimes add in focus groups. What could be added to the more than a dozen questions on course evaluation and faculty feedback surveys?
The information we gather in student focus groups doesn’t replace the very valuable narrative feedback from course evaluations, rather, it allows us to ask targeted questions, clarify responses and drill down into the data.
Developed from “focused interviews” around the time of the Second World War, focus groups emerged as a key qualitative research tool in the latter half of the 20th century. Robert K. Merton, a sociologist from Columbia University, is hailed as the “father of the focus group.” (He died in 2003 at age 92.)
Merton used focused interviews to gain insight into groups’ responses to text, radio programs and films. Politicians and marketing companies soon seized upon focus groups to gauge voter and consumer trends. The Queen’s UGME Education Team uses focus groups in a targeted way to augment information gleaned from course evaluation feedback, course director’s meetings with academic reps and other feedback tools.
According to a briefing paper from Carnegie Mellon University, focus groups are “particularly effective” for eliciting suggestions for improvement. “They are also much more flexible than surveys or scales because they allow for question clarification and follow-up questions to probe vague or unexpected responses.” It also helps that faculty rate focus groups as “accurate, useful and believable”.
If you’re asked to participate in a focus group, only agree if you think you have something to contribute to the investigator’s project or purpose. (Sure, it’s fun to come for the free food, but be prepared to contribute in a meaningful way).
- To be informed if the focus group is for research or curricular innovation (or both). Research studies must have approval from the Research Ethics Board and require specific paperwork to document informed consent. Curricular innovation focus groups are less formal, but will still respect confidentiality of participants. These might not have the same paperwork.
- The facilitator to set the ground rules, and guide the discussion. Savvy facilitators will do this with a minimum of fuss: they will listen more than they speak. (But you can certainly ask for clarification if you’re not sure of a question).
- A co-facilitator will likely take notes and monitor any recording equipment used. The co-facilitator may summarize after each question and solicit further input as required.
- You’ll be asked specific questions, and engage in conversation with the other participants.
What you shouldn’t expect:
- A venting session. This isn’t the time to just complain. A focus group is looking for constructive feedback and suggested solutions.
- To always have your say: the facilitator may realize they have reached saturation on a particular question and will move on. This is to respect your time. (You’ll have an opportunity to send additional comments electronically afterwards if you felt there is an important point that was missed).
What you can do to prepare:
- If the questions are provided in advance (this is best practice but not always possible on tight timelines!) you should take some time to think about them.
- Be sure you know where the meeting room is, and arrive on time.
What you can do during:
- Contribute, but make sure you don’t end up dominating the conversation. The facilitator will be looking for a balance of views and contributors.
- Listen attentively to others and avoid interrupting. The facilitator will make sure everyone has a chance to contribute – you’ll get your turn.
What you can expect from data collected at a focus group:
- It will be confidential. Different strategies are employed. For example, you may be assigned a number during the focus group and participants asked to refer to people by number (“Participant 2 said…”).
- In a formal research study, you should be offered an opportunity to review the data transcript after it is prepared. (This is sometimes waived on the consent form, so read carefully so you can have realistic expectations of the investigator).
- The end product is a summary of the conversation, with any emergent themes identified to answer the research questions.
What you can’t expect:
- A magic bullet solution to a challenge in a course or class.
- One hundred percent consensus from all participants – you can agree to disagree.
- For all outlier opinions to be represented in the final report. These may be omitted from summary reports.
We’re always grateful to our students for donating their time to our various focus group requests throughout the year. These contributions are invaluable.
If you think this type of data collection could be useful in your course review and revisions, feel free to get in touch. It’s one of the tools in our qualitative research toolbox and we’re happy to deploy it for you as may be appropriate.
Eleni Katsoulas firstname.lastname@example.org
Theresa Suart email@example.com
June Curricular Leaders Retreat held: EPAs, Remediation and Feedback, oh my!
After bringing another busy semester to a close, UGME curricular leaders took time to reflect on the past year and take part in workshops and discussion groups on a number of areas of the curriculum at their semi-annual Curricular Leaders Retreat on June 19. The aim of the retreat was to share information and to generate ideas and solutions to address teaching and assessment challenges.
In his end of year report, Associate Dean Anthony Sanfilippo highlighted accomplishments of the past year as well as announced new faculty appointments.
After providing an entertaining and informative review of the process of curriculum renewal that UGME has undergone over the last several years, including the development of the “Red Book” objectives, Dr. Sanfilippo discussed how the emerging use of Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) will relate to and refine our existing curriculum and assessment processes.
Dr. Sue Moffatt presented an information session on how the three classroom-based “C” courses relate to both clerkship and the rest of the curriculum.
In a discussion about Service-Learning, led by Dr. Sanfilippo, faculty brainstormed ways additional service-learning opportunities could be created for medical students and others as well as ways they could support and encourage students in these endeavours. The Service Learning Advisory Panel will consider their suggestions and recommendations.
As a follow-up to last year’s popular workshop on remediation strategies, Michelle Gibson, Richard Van Wylick and Renee Fitzpatrick presented “Remediation 2” with additional cases and strategies.
For the afternoon, participants chose between a session on writing narrative feedback or one on making ExamSoft work for you.
Designed in particular for faculty working in clerkship, clinical skills and facilitated small group learning (FSGL), for the workshop on narrative feedback, Cherie Jones and Andrea Winthrop provided concrete examples and solutions to situations faculty routinely encounter when needing to provided constructive feedback to students. This included a discussion of ways in which oral and written feedback differ.
In the ExamSoft workshop, Michelle Gibson, Eleni Katsoulas and Amanda Consack worked with faculty to show how to tag mid-term and final assessments to match to assigned MCC presentations and Red Book objectives as well as coding for author and key word. Using these ExamSoft tools upfront makes it possible to use built-in reports to blueprint assessments, rather than having to do so manually. (For more on ExamSoft, check out the team’s poster from CCME at this link.)
To wrap up the day’s activities, pre-clerkship and clerkship course directors brainstormed with competency leads for ways the milestones identified for these intrinsic roles can be met throughout the curriculum. How to highlight and incorporate patient safety in different courses was also considered.
Documents from the Retreat are available to curricular leaders under “Retreats” on the Faculty Resources Community Page.