I’m back with another perspective on collaborative learning. This time, I’m indebted to Jim Sibley at UBC for giving me permission to use Framework for TBL Application Activity Reporting Facilitation by Loretta Whitehorne, Larry Michaelsen, and Jim Sibley, reproduced here:
Our own Dr. Lindsay Davidson brought this home from the Team Based Learning (TBL) Collaborative’s Meeting this year.
or click on this:
This framework is designed to help us facilitate reporting on activities in our TBLs (SGL’s for Queen’s)…The 3 stages of an activity’s progression, Discovery, Examination and Commitment are great terms for ways of looking at key steps in any activity—in other words: get information, look carefully at the information and do stuff with it, and create a product. Specific tasks within each stage are extremely helpful advice for students and faculty to give reports on how they are doing in an activity. They’re also very helpful prompts for actual tasks!
(Actually, for the physicians and medical students out there, you can also see the 3 stages of arriving at a diagnosis: Gather information, Examine the information carefully and relate to experience, patterns, etc. and finally Commit to a diagnosis.)
However, these days I am focused on collaborative learning, and trying to go beyond the Norming, Storming, Reforming approach which many have often been taught. I often hear from students, “I’m not sure what to do in the group, except report back.”
The framework that Whitehorne, Michaelsen, Sibley have developed immediately gave me ideas about roles a student could take on in a group. In looking at the framework, I’ve grouped the 5 main roles and given them an attribute. So following are several behaviours that students can adopt; ideally the same person could adopt all 5 roles in one activity, depending on the group’s need. In fact, if a person remains in one role too long, it may make the group less productive. The idea is to recognize what is needed and move into that role to help move the group task along:
1. Sensor (Listens, shares, looks for consensus, is aware of others’ ideas)
2. Converger or Focuser (Focuses on specifics, probes, builds on others’ ideas, examines in depth)
3. Generalizer (Takes specifics to generalizations, expands, relates to frameworks or theory)
4. Summarizer and Synthesizer: (Puts it all together, supports and asks, “What if?”)
5. Maverick: (Looks for the different, the alternative, the unconventional, etc. Dare’s to differ instead of follow the crowd if it’s going “down the rabbit hole.”) Checks on things.
If you look at the Framework’s matrix, you’ll see that the Sensor’s role stays quite true throughout the different stages of an activity, as does the Summarizer-Synthesizer, etc..
Then there are great descriptions of behaviours a group member can adopt to move the group work forward based on the framework.
For example, looking at the framework, under the Discovery stage,
a Sensor can respect and listen actively to all contributions. H/she can also be a person who moderates or facilitates so everyone gets their turn. A Sensor can also unpack or explain in detail how a team arrived at a decision.
A person who is the Generalizer might restate the aggregated ideas of previous speakers, or link or combine, or put ideas together. S/he may articulate links between ideas or incorporate multiple sources into a single idea.
If your activity has progressed to Examining stage, the Sensor might compare or contrast by examining rationales to articulate similarities and differences. The Maverick might redirect or park by gently guiding conversation away from non-productive directions, and refocusing to direct attention to other thematic elements.
Under the Commitment stage (and I like this term, because it symbolizes positive and concrete final steps), the person who is a Converger-Focuser may generate specific examples by applying concepts and incorporating personal experience. The Generalizer may create general rules by drawing out the general principles and developing tentative “rules of thumb”. The Summarizer– Synthesizer may make predictions by considering what might happen as a result of particular idea in particular scenario. What is the role of a Maverick at this late stage? Even as the group pulls together a product or a choice, or an answer, the Maverick considers to what degree the choice or answer fits into the context or the applicability.
All in all, I got very excited when I saw this framework—not only because it focuses on ways to extend tasks and activities for group work but because it adds to my thoughts on collaborative learning. I also have to compliment the artist behind the figures in this framework (Angela Cunningham?)—they are extremely helpful when you work at grasping what the behaviours are!
So happy collaborative learning with a few more tips and strategies for our students working in groups and teams.
P.S. I’m also writing this on July 1…and so want to celebrate our country’s 150th with you by wishing you a Happy Canada Day!