What are those learning event types, anyway?

Tucked on the right-hand side of every Learning Event Page on Elentra are notations about the date & time and location of the class, followed by the length of the session and then the “Breakdown” of how the time will be spent. In other words: the learning event type.

Person writing in a notebook or planner. Only hands and notebook are showing.

After the last 18 months of learning event types being broadly divided into “Zoom” and “not-Zoom”, it’s worth having a look at what these notations (really) mean as we get back to more face-to-face on-campus teaching.

We use 18 learning event types* in the Queen’s UGME program. The identification of a learning event type indicates the type of teaching and learning experience to be expected at that session.

Broadly speaking, our learning event types can be divided into two categories: Content Delivery and Content Application.

For content delivery, students are presented with core knowledge and/or skills with specific direction and/or commentary from an expert teacher. Content delivery learning events include:

  • Directed Independent Learning (DIL) — these are independent learning sessions which are assigned curricular time. Typically, students are expected to spend up to double the assigned time to complete the tasks – i.e. some of the work may occur in “homework time”. DIL’s have a specific structure and must include:
    • Specific learning objectives
    • A resource or set of resources chosen by the teacher
    • Teacher guidance indicating the task or particular focus that is required of students. This may be a formal assignment, informal worksheet or study guide.
    • The session must link to a subsequent content application session.
    • Formative testing in the form of MCQ or reflective questions are an optional component of DILs

While students have nicknamed these “do it later”, it’s important that learners complete the assigned material prior to the related in-class sessions in order to be ready for what comes next. DILs aren’t an alternative delivery of material covered elsewhere, but essential curricular delivery.

  • Lecture – Whole class session which is largely teacher-directed. We encourage the use of case illustrations during lectures, however these alone do not fulfil the criteria for content application or active learning.
  • Demonstration – Session where a skill or technique is demonstrated to students.

For content application (sometimes described as “active learning”), students work in teams or individually to use and clarify previously-acquired knowledge, usually while working through case-based problems. These learning event types include:

  • Small group learning (SGL): Students work in teams to solve case-base problems which are revealed progressively. Simultaneous reporting and facilitated inter-team discussion is a key component of this learning strategy which is modeled on Team-Based Learning. SGL cases may be preceded by in class readiness assessment testing (RAT) done individually and then as a team. This serves to debrief the preparation and provide for individual accountability for preparation.
  • Facilitated small group learning (FSGL)Students work in teams and with a faculty tutor to solve case-base problems which are revealed progressively. While there is structure to FSGL cases, students are encouraged to seek out and share knowledge based on individual research.
  • Simulation: Session where students participate in a simulated procedure or clinical encounter.
  • Patient or Panel Presentation (PPP): Session where students interact with guest patients and/or health care providers who share their experience. Builds on prior learning and often includes interactive Q+A component.
  • Laboratory: Hands-on or simulated exercises in which learners collect or use data to test and/or verify hypotheses or to address questions about principles and/or phenomena, such as Anatomy Labs.

The other learning event types we use don’t fit as neatly into the content delivery/content application algorithm. These include:

  • Clerkship seminar – instruction provided to a learner or small group of learners by direct interaction with an instructor. Depending on design, clerkship seminars may be either content delivery or content application.
  • Self-Directed Learning (SDL) is scheduled time set aside for students to take the initiative for their own learning. A minimum of eight hours per week (pro-rated in short weeks) is designated SDL time. (This is referred to as “Independent Learning” or “IL Time” in the UGME Policy Governing Curricular Time).
  • Peer Teaching is learner-to-learner instruction for the mutual learning experience of both “teacher” and “learner” which includes active learning components. This includes sessions that require students to work together in small groups without a teaching, such as Being a Medical Student (BAMS) sessions, the Community Based Project and some Critical Enquiry sessions.
  • Career Counseling sessions, which provide guidance, direction and support; these may be in groups or one-on-one.

Two other notations you’ll see are “Other-curricular” and “Other—non-curricular”. Other—curricular is used for sessions that are directly linked to a course but that are not included in calculations of instructional methods. This includes things like examinations, post-exam reviews, and orientation sessions. Other—non-curricular are sessions of an administrative nature that are not directly linked to a particular course and are outside of curricular time, for example, class town hall meetings and optional events or conferences.

Incorporating a variety of learning event types in each course is important to ensure a balance of knowledge acquisition and application. Course plans are set by course directors with their year director, in consultation with the course teachers and with support from the UG Education Team.


*In 2015, Queen’s UGME adopted the MedBiquitous learning event naming conventions to ease sharing of data amongst institutions. For this reason, some learning event type categories may be different from ones used here prior to 2015, or ones used at other, non-medical schools or medical schools which have not adopted these conventions.

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Together again, in person and with gusto

The last in-person, full-class teaching session in the Queen’s School of Medicine took place over 18 months ago. Seems much longer. Since then, as is known to all reading this article, we’ve been providing our curriculum with a combination of virtual and appropriately regulated small group teaching events. These arrangements, contrived and cumbersome as they may appear, have allowed programming to continue and student learning to progress. 

Just last week, we received very welcome news from the province and university that restrictions could be reduced to allow full class, in person sessions to proceed as of September 7th. Unfortunately, this didn’t arrive in time for our Orientation Week which was scheduled to begin August 30th. We had therefore planned and received approval from the university for a modified program which would be compliant with current requirements. The week kicked off with a welcoming event for all first, second and third year students (our fourth years being on clinical rotations and unable to attend) held in the main gymnasium of the ARC (Athletics and Recreation Centre).  Our fully vaccinated, screened, disease-free, and masked students were welcomed back to the school year and to a “more normal” learning environment by faculty and student leadership. The significance and poignancy of assembling after such a long period of relative isolation cannot be overstated. To add to the celebration, music was provided by “Old Docs New Tricks” (ODNT), a group of SOM faculty physicians who not only entertained the crowd but demonstrated how busy practicing physicians can maintain personal interests while achieving great things in their professional lives.

Below is a small album of photos from the event, all by Lars Hagberg, go-to photographer extraordinaire and friend of the School of Medicine.

Dr. Jane Philpott, Dean, Faculty of Health Sciences

Mr. Bryan Wong, President, Aesculapian Society

ODNT: Drs. David Maslove, Gerald Evans, Jim Biagi, Danielle Kain, Gord Boyd, Rachel Holden (unable to attend: Dr. Chris Frank)

ODNT performing for the crowd

Many thanks to our Student Affairs group, capably led by Dr. Renee Fitzpatrick and supported by Erin Meyer and Hayley Morgenstern, who worked tirelessly and with great adaptability to make these arrangements.

We all recognize that the pandemic is far from resolved. We remain guided by continuing public health requirements. We recognize that further adaptations will likely be required in the weeks and months to come. We remain committed to providing the best possible educational experience for our students and learning environment for all involved.

But, for now, we’re just grateful to be in our classrooms and in person. We’re back!

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Looking for a Few Good People

We’re incredibly fortunate at Queen’s to be blessed with a faculty that engages educational leadership with enthusiasm, creativity and dedication.  When new positions emerge, or when people who have been key contributors come to the end of their terms, the program faces both challenges and opportunities.  The challenge is obviously to fill the position and assist the incumbent.  The opportunity, of course, is that it allows another faculty member to engage a new challenge, to influence medical education and advance their careers in new ways.  

A number of such positions become available at the end of each academic year.  I will describe some of these below and invite any interested faculty members to forward any inquiries or expressions of interest to myself or Dr. Michelle Gibson. 

Chair, Student Assessment Committee 

The Student Assessment Committee has a key role within an undergraduate medical program. It’s basically responsible for the oversight of all assessment practices in UGME, including setting policy & procedures. Peter McPherson has been very capably filling this role for the past few years. The Chair of SAC also works closely with course directors and other curricular leaders on the implementation of exams and other assessments.  This includes reviewing the design and content, and assisting in the post-exam analysis process, supported by our Assessment and Evaluation Consultant (Eleni Katsoulas). They also work with our assessment team, headed by Amanda Consack. In addition, the chair of SAC sits on Curriculum Committee and has a key voice within that key group.  SAC meetings take place quarterly, with additional duties for the chair throughout the year in terms of the day-to-day oversight of our assessment systems.  Expertise and interest in assessment practices is required for this position, as well as the willingness to work with our very capable administrative team, our assessment consultant and numerous faculty colleagues who serve as Course Directors.

We are looking for three Competency Leads.  These individuals are responsible for oversight of relevant learning objectives, by way of working with course directors and other curricular leaders to enhance the teaching and assessment of these roles in our curriculum. Competency leads often work together as there are natural links between many different of these roles.

Communicator Lead

The Communicator lead will review how we teach and assess communication objectives across our curriculum, to ensure our students are excellent communicators in many different settings.  This includes looking at communication in different contexts such as with patients, families, health care professionals, colleagues, and the community. 

Scholar lead

This role has been held and developed by Heather Murray since it was developed as part of our curricular renewal several years ago. Heather has developed a robust and innovative set of curricular offerings that meet our program objectives that relate to critical appraisal, research methodology and life-long learning. The Scholar lead will review how we teach and assess all these components. This role also addresses students’ skills for self-assessment and ensures they have the skills to implement a plan to address their own personal learning needs throughout their careers. The scholar lead will also oversee and direct the annual Research Showcase.

Leader Lead

The alliteratively named Leader Lead will review how we teach and assess different objectives designed to help our students develop their skills as leaders. This includes developing skills that will lead to effective management of the care of their patients, their practice, and themselves in the context of the Canadian health care system, community, and society in which they practice. This includes an understanding of the principles of patient safety, stewardship, and quality improvement systems. The competency also includes working with our well-established Student Affairs group in providing students with opportunities for career exploration to inform their career choice, and development of personal insight and behaviours that will promote wellness and self-management, leading them to healthy life-long and rewarding careers.

Clerkship OSCE lead 

This faculty member would work with our established OSCE support team and clerkship course directors to design and implement an OSCE for clinical clerks, once a year.  This is a new position, ideal for a faculty member interested in student assessment who would like to be more involved in UGME.  The date of the clerkship OSCE for the 2021/2022 academic year will be in February 2022. 

Course & Faculty Review Committee members

Three committee members are needed for this committee that reviews course evaluations to make recommendations to the curriculum committee.  These positions are open to any faculty members who have familiarity with UGME.   This committee meets quarterly, with additional need for electronic review between meetings.

All these positions will receive credit within our Workforce accountability system.  For information or further discussion regarding any of these positions, please contact me directly at ajs@queensu.ca or Michelle Gibson, Assistant Dean Curriculum at gibsonm1@providencecare.ca.

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They’re Going to be OK. A Thank-you to Our First Patients and Remarkable First Year Class

These days, more than ever, bits of good news are truly welcome. Like rays of sunshine breaking through the clouds on a gloomy day, they remind us that things are still basically right with the world and brighter days are ahead.

I had one of those experiences last week attending a wrap-up session for our First Patient Program. The FPP is a rather unique curricular offering at Queen’s supervised by Dr. Brenda Whitney and superbly organized by Ms. Kathy Bowes, an RN who has been working in various capacities in the undergraduate program for many years.

Patients are recruited from the Kingston community who have chronic medical problems requiring regular encounters with physicians and other health care providers. These patients generously agree to allow two of our first-year students to meet with them and their families, to get to know them personally and to follow them through the year. At the end of each year, a reception is held to thank them. Following are some pictures from the 2019 event.

From First Patient Reception 2019

The students are expected to learn about the illness experience through the eyes of the patient. They check in regularly and accompany patients to their various medical encounters. They are expected to gain insights not only about the specific condition afflicting the patient, but the impact of that condition on them and their family members, and of the practical challenges involved in the process of receiving care. For most of our first-year students, it is their first personal experience with chronic illness and its impact.

First Patient Reception 2019

This year, the pandemic posed considerable logistic challenges. Dr. Whitney and Ms. Bowes were remarkably creative and adaptable in adjusting the program to allow the students to gain valuable experiences despite the limitations.

First Patient Reception 2019

This past week a virtual wrap-up of the program was held, involving both students and their “first patients”. The highlight of the program, for me, was hearing from the students themselves about insights they had gained and taken away from their encounters. Here are a few samples, taken from the slide presentation prepared for the session.

What’s particularly remarkable is that all this was gleaned by a group of students whose introduction to the study and profession of medicine has been, to say the least, unconventional. Indeed, the pandemic and its myriad of imposed restrictions have drastically altered the educational experience for all our students. Although everyone involved has done everything possible to make the best of it, our students have not had opportunity to assemble as a class, work together or engage patient encounters as planned. They have accepted all this, by and large, with understanding and patience.

The first year class has been particularly affected because they’ve not yet had the opportunity to fully meet as a class or personally encounter many faculty members. Those of us responsible for their learning experience have had some apprehension and a few sleepless nights about the adequacy of what was being provided. Certainly, the course content and necessary knowledge was being imparted and learned. Assessments were satisfactorily completed. Skills that could be demonstrated and practiced were being mastered. But were they learning about what it is to engage patients? Were they learning to regard their patients as individuals with lives, hopes and families, to understand their suffering, to search for ways to help? Were they learning how necessary all this is to providing effective care?

Last week’s session made me realize that much has already been learned, including real-life lessons that could never have been imparted in a classroom or by reading scholarly works. They’ve learned that only by engaging real people with real problems can the full scope and value of medical care be truly realized. They’ve learned that our patients can be our best teachers.

And I learned that this group of students, despite all the accommodations that have been made to our curriculum, are going to be OK. They get it. They are on their way to becoming fine doctors.

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A Virtual Walk in COVID Times

By Daniel Huang, Sam Sarabia, Ioana Dobre, Co-chairs, Kingston Walk for Arthritis 2021

In 2017, Queen’s Class of 2018 alumna Molly Dushnicky organized the very first Kingston Walk for Arthritis, led by a group of Qmed students and faculty, community leaders, representatives from the Arthritis Society, and local businesses. The fundraiser was a major success, bringing together the Queen’s and Kingston communities, raising much needed funds for the Arthritis Society, and raising awareness for a disease that affects 1 in 6 Canadians.

The picture shows people of a variety of ages walking on Fort Henry Hill at the annual Walk for Arthritis in 2018. They are wearing Walk for Arthritis shirts.
Participants of the Kingston Walk for Arthritis 2018 at Fort Henry. This year, the walk will be held in a virtual format, with a variety of routes for participants to choose from to participate in a safe, physically-distanced fashion.

Since then, successive Qmed classes have taken up the task of organizing the Walk for Arthritis annually. Unfortunately, the 2020 Walk for Arthritis was cancelled, like many similar community events, due to the restrictions put in place across Ontario during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

Given the importance of this cause, and taking inspiration from examples of successful virtual and socially-distanced fundraising events around the world–which have advanced such varied causes as producing PPE for frontline workers, collecting perishable food items for food banks, and hosting online arts and cultural events to support local artists–this year the organizing committee for the Walk for Arthritis endeavoured to transition to a completely virtual walk, to be held from April 23-25th, 2021.

This was a first for many members of our committee. Such basic tasks as finding participants, contacting local businesses, and reaching out to charitable and patient advocacy organizations needed a complete rethink. Like many other event organizers, we struggled with the basic question of how communities can come together in the middle of a pandemic that has uprooted many lives and restricted our ability to gather in person.

In the midst of these new challenges however, the continued resilience of our local community and the support we have had from classmates and the Queen’s faculty have truly been heartwarming. Though many are struggling, the message we received from local Kingston businesses was also loud and clear: they offered whatever they could and promised to stay connected once this pandemic is over. And, the virtual setting has provided new opportunities. Participants can walk from ‘virtually’ anywhere while maintaining a sense of camaraderie by getting involved with the walk’s virtual events, including raffle contests, and sharing photos and stories of loved ones who have faced this debilitating disease. It has truly become a virtual community.

Hopefully in future years we will return to the beautiful Fort Henry and walk together, in-person, like in years past. Until then, we will gather virtually to support our loved ones who suffer from arthritis and celebrate their strength and courage. As in years past, proceeds from our event will be donated to the Arthritis Society, in support of their efforts to sponsor cutting-edge research and patient advocacy programs to achieve better health outcomes for people affected by arthritis.

We look forward to seeing all of you on April 23-25th, 2021. For more information on how to participate, please visit our registration page at:

https://arthritis.ca/moveyourway/KingstonWalkforArthritis

And, follow us on social media for your chance to win 1 of 10 gift cards for floatation therapy provided by our main event sponsor, Rejuve-nation Wellness Experts:

Facebook event: https://fb.me/e/PEnEHvs4

Twitter: @KingstonWFA

Instagram: @KingstonWFA

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Small connections matter

My Dad died last week in New Brunswick.

I write that not as an invitation to sympathy (but, thank you), but to share a few thoughts from the patient’s family perspective – not on death during a pandemic, although that intensified and complicated things, so much as death in general.

Dad had a stroke nearly four years ago and his memory wasn’t what it once was. I’ll leave parsing out what was effects of the stroke versus medication versus dementia to course case studies. When he fell two weeks ago and broke his hip, the cause of his cognitive difficulties didn’t matter so much as the fact that he was an old man who was scared who was in hospital with visitor restrictions. That is: no visitors at all, unless the patient had palliative status (and Dad didn’t until his last day). Dad didn’t really understand the pandemic, and sometimes forgot what was really going on with his care – doing such things as trying to pull out his IV and catheter, for example. He was scared and in pain and confused.

One bright part of these terrible days was the day his nurse was from Miramichi, his hometown. He was so delighted to talk with her and talk about the places of his boyhood with someone who knew where he was talking about. Who shared the same connection to the River, to the place, to home.

This reminded me of decades ago and my last visit with my maternal grandmother in a Moncton, NB hospital a week before she died. My grandmother was Acadian but lived most of her life in a predominately English community. Her children spoke English. Her grandchildren were truly assimilated with only classroom-based, mediocre French. One of my indelible memories from that last visit was that her conversations with the nurses were always in French. And she seemed so happy to be able to do that. That her first language mattered; that she mattered.

I don’t want to suggest that for meaningful connections healthcare professionals need to share hometowns and language with all of their patients. This is both unrealistic and absurd. These connections highlight just that: connections. Those two nurses, decades apart, connected with scared, dying patients by honoring their shared humanity. My father wasn’t a broken hip; my grandmother wasn’t a failed kidney.

When my mother-in-law was in palliative care in a Toronto hospital in 2010, one of the volunteers did music therapy with the patients. When I arrived for a visit one of the last afternoons, there was a Rachmaninov CD on the table with a Post-It note: “When she wakes up, play track 4 for Sylvia”. He hadn’t had one in his kit and she had spoken about it with him; she was sleeping when he came back with it. (We still have the CD, as he wanted us to keep it).

There isn’t always time in busy clinics and wards to make substantial connections with each and every patient – especially for students who are wrestling with mounds and mounds of material to learn, remember, apply. I’d argue that small connections are just as meaningful. Small moments matter – a shared favourite song, listening to reminiscing. Dignity and connections matter.

None of those things I mentioned were “medical care” for Dad, Nanny, or Sylvie, but it was medicine in the compassion, the care, and the connections. And it’s these connections which give comfort to those of us left behind.


If you want to read a bit about my Dad, check out this link: https://nble.lib.unb.ca/browse/n/michael-o-nowlan

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Silent Victims of the Pandemic

“Jean died last night.”

That was my first email message of the morning. It came from Jean’s daughter. Jean (not her real name) had been in hospital being treated for heart failure. She didn’t want to be in hospital, to be sure. It took her daughter, her family physician and I to convince her that she could no longer manage on her own, up most of the night sitting in her chair panting for breath, the skin of her swollen legs beginning to break down.

Although I wasn’t her attending cardiologist during this admission, I had treated her for many years and dropped by to visit with her the day before. Propped up in her high backed hospital chair with her feet elevated, she almost reluctantly admitted she was feeling a bit better. Her legs were clearly less edematous. But she didn’t think she was going to go home this time and that, she said, was OK. She had made her wishes clear to all. Her “comfort care” status was well documented.

Although in her late 80’s, Jean retained a perceptive intelligence and disdain for convention. Anything she didn’t approve of was quickly dismissed as “nonsense”. The word that immediately comes to mind to describe her is “feisty”.

She’d immigrated to Canada with her husband and infant daughter shortly after the second world war. They worked various jobs eventually opening and operating a successful small business . When her husband passed away, she operated the business, eventually turning it over to her daughter.

Jean had rheumatic fever in her youth which left her with valvular heart disease. In the early part of the twentieth century, rheumatic mitral stenosis was a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young women, resulting not only in heart failure but also stroke due to cardiac thrombi precipitated by the onset of atrial fibrillation, often during pregnancy. Many years ago, when she began to develop symptoms,  Jean underwent a closed mitral commissurotomy. This was one of the first surgical approaches available. The surgeon would attempt to break the fusion of the mitral leaflets caused by the rheumatic inflammatory process, either with dilators or a finger passed across the valve.

This approach, which sounds rather crude to us today, was very effective in relieving symptoms and is the same basic approach used today with catheter based balloon valvuloplasty.

She did well for many years after the commissurotomy and even had a baby despite conventional medical wisdom at the time advising against pregnancy. Her mitral stenosis gradually progressed, and she went on to have a valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis about 25 years ago. Over the years, she evolved varied and expected cardiac manifestations including atrial fibrillation, progressive aortic valve disease, coronary disease and, most recently, right-sided heart failure.  She faced each challenge with grace and acceptance. As she said many times, she never expected to live to be an “old lady” and was grateful for whatever treatments were available to her. But, in recent years, she was quite clear that there would be no more interventions, catheterizations or surgeries. The goals of care were very clear: “I’ll take whatever pills you suggest, just keep me independent and out of hospital”

And independent she was. In her own home until moving into a rather posh retirement complex a few years ago. I attended a reception in her honour organized by her daughter and friends for her 85th birthday. She was the epitome of charm, holding court like a duchess at a ball.

Her daughter’s message was accompanied by a request to call. She let me know how very important it was that she was able to visit with her mother the evening before she passed away. Given the pandemic restrictions, what they both feared most about the hospitalization was the separation from each other. This, no doubt, was the main reason they delayed so long in asking for help. However, the medical and nursing staff went out of their way to make arrangements for them to see each other. She asked me to express how important this was to them and to pass along their gratitude, which was one of the motivations for this article. What may have seemed to be a small act of kindness was highly meaningful.

The other objective of this article is to highlight the impact this pandemic is having on management of chronic disease and end-of-life care. Jean’s reluctance to come to hospital despite a clear need for help is typical of many patients suffering from cardiac and other chronic diseases.

A recent article examining emergency room visits for acute heart failure found a 43.5% reduction in 2020 compared to the previous year, and a 39.3% reduction in hospital admissions (Frankfurter et al. Can J Cardiol 2020;36:1680).

From: Frankfurter et al. Can J Cardiol 2020;36:1680

The authors conclude with this important observation:

“The precipitous decline observed in ADHF (acute decompensated heart failure)-related ED visits and hospitalizations raises the timely question of how these patients are managing beyond the acute-care setting and reinforces the need for broad public education on the continued availability and safety of emergency services throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.”

This issue is not limited to heart failure patients. In fact, while preparing this article, I was contacted by another patient with known multi-vessel coronary artery disease and previous myocardial injury who was awaiting much needed surgical intervention. He’d been experiencing chest pain for two hours and was calling to ask whether it was “safe” to go to the emergency department. He’s now being admitted awaiting surgery while being treated for his unstable ischemic syndrome.

In an examination of patients with coronary artery disease presentations, Natarajan et al (Canadian Journal of Cardiology Open 2020: 678e683) reported both lower rates of myocardial infarction and delays to coronary angiography in 2020 compared with the previous year.

From: Natarajan et al. Canadian Journal of Cardiology Open 2020: 678e683

Clearly, the coronavirus has not reduced the prevalence of either heart failure or coronary disease. It has, however, imposed barriers to access. Although we do not yet have precise information as to the nature of these barriers, it’s apparent that each step along the path from initial symptom assessment to final treatment is made more difficult by necessary pandemic precautions, and that patients, advised strongly to isolate, are understandably more fearful about venturing into emergency departments and diagnostic facilities.

And so, the accounts of these two patients have much to teach us.

It’s important to remember that, even during a terrible pandemic, most of the patients we’re treating do not have COVID-19. Most of them are suffering from the same medical and surgical conditions they’ve always had, and these diseases don’t wait for the pandemic to pass. However, the pandemic does impose barriers to their ability and/or willingness to access care. As the medical and public health communities message the public about the need to adhere to all the preventive measures, it’s important also emphasize the importance of continuing to manage all health concerns and work to diminish access barriers wherever possible.

As always, our patients are our greatest teachers. Jean taught me and the countless learners she was always pleased to engage along the way much about the natural history, features and available treatments for rheumatic heart disease. That’s a legacy that will benefit many future patients. For that, she deserves our gratitude, and the kindness shown her during her final admission seems well earned.

I will miss her.

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Lessons in Diversity and Inclusion: The Legacy of Joey Moss

Joey Moss, by all accounts, achieved his dream job. He was an avid hockey fan who became locker room attendant for the Edmonton Oilers.  The Oilers, it must be understood, are not just any hockey team. They were Mr. Moss’s favourite team and personal passion. During the 1980s, they were phenomenally successful, winning no fewer than five championships.  

As a locker room attendant, he will have had a variety of tasks, including organizing equipment, looking after needs of players during games and generally bringing some order to the chaos that ensues when 20 or so young athletes are engaged in a fast-paced, high-pressure sport.

Mr. Moss, who was born with Down Syndrome, passed away last week. It appears, based on numerous testimonials that have come forward since his death, that his influence extended well beyond his designated tasks. His unrelenting good humour, infectious enthusiasm and continual encouragement of the players brought value far beyond his assigned duties. Wayne Gretzky, a star member of those teams, summed it up nicely when, upon hearing of Mr. Moss’s passing said simply “He made our lives better”.

bardown.com

Mr. Gretzky was, in fact, instrumental in bringing Mr. Moss to the attention of the hockey club. The two met when Gretzky became acquainted with Moss’s sister. Gretzky, at that time, was in the ascendancy of a career that was to eventually define him arguably (and these things are always arguable) as the greatest hockey player of all time. He arranged the introduction, but it was Mr. Moss’s work ethic, dedication and attitude that made him such a fixture and success with the team.

How did all this come about? What motivates a rising star and celebrity to go the trouble to advocate for someone they’ve just met? Gretzky is not known to be a comfortable public figure nor a vocal advocate for social change. At that time, he was a young man adapting to celebrity in a large city. He’d been born and raised Brantford, a town in southwestern Ontario best known (pre-Gretzky) as the birthplace of the telephone. His father Walter worked for Bell Canada and, together with wife Phyllis, taught their five children lessons of life and hockey in their busy home and on the ice rinks installed annually on their lawn. Those lessons, one might imagine, involved how to relate to the people in one’s community and a responsibility to help those in need when the opportunity presented itself. In advocating for Mr. Moss, it appears Gretzky was perceiving and responding to such an opportunity. What he did was not about publicity or self-promotion. It was something personal, a selfless act of kindness.  

nhl.com

The struggle for inclusion and acceptance of diversity will not be won solely by legislation, public campaigns or vitriolic dialogue. It will be won through individual encounters that challenge assumptions and dispel fears. Mr. Gretzky and Mr. Moss did not set out to convince a team of young athletes, a business organization, a city or a nation that a person who looked different and was considered disabled could make a valuable contribution. And yet, that’s what they did, all beginning with a chance encounter and simple act of kindness. Indeed, making lives better.

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Medical Student Research Showcase moves online

By Drs. Andrea Winthrop & Melanie Walker

This year the School of Medicine is proud to invite you to the 9th annual Medical Student Research Showcase on Friday October 30th, 2020. The event this year will be held virtually.

This event celebrates the research achievements of our undergraduate medical students, with both posters and an oral plenary session featuring research performed by students while they have been enrolled in medical school. All students who received summer studentship research funding through the School of Medicine in 2020 will be presenting their work, as well as many other research initiatives. This year we have 80 poster submissions and students will be presenting their posters virtually from 10:30-11:30 a.m. The links to the 2020 Medical Student Research Showcase Abstract Book, posters and the virtual room for each presenter is on our Medical Student Research Showcase Community in Elentra at the following link https://elentra.healthsci.queensu.ca/community/researchshowcase:2020_poster_submissions. (You need to log in to Elentra to access this link).

This year’s Research Showcase will look different, with online delivery.

The oral plenary features the top research projects selected by a panel of faculty judges, and will run virtually from 11:30 a.m. – 12:30 p.m. The Zoom link is available on the Elentra community page (above link).

This year’s faculty judges included:

  • Dr. Sheela Abraham
  • Dr. Andrew Bickle
  • Dr. Anne Ellis
  • Dr. Laura Gaudet
  • Dr. Sudeep Gill
  • Dr. Mark Harrison
  • Dr. Robyn Houlden
  • Dr. Diane Lougheed
  • Dr. Alexandre Menard
  • Dr. Shaila Merchant
  • Dr. Sonja Molin
  • Dr. Lois Mulligan
  • Dr. Chris Nicol
  • Dr. Stephen Pang
  • Dr. Emidio Tarulli
  • Dr. Timothy Phillips
  • Dr. Michael Rauh
  • Dr. Sonal Varma
  • Dr. Maria Velez
  • Dr. Nishardi Wijeratne

We are very grateful to these faculty members for evaluating our oral plenary applicants this year.

The three students who have been selected for the oral plenary session, and the titles of their research presentations and faculty supervisor names are listed below. Each of these three students will receive The Albert Clark Award for Medical Student Research Excellence.

Ricky Hu – “An artificial intelligence-based time-dependent model to predict prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases” Hu, R.; Chen, I.; Beaulieu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Reyngold, M.; Simpson, A.*

Nathan Katz -“A Novel Way of Teaching Gross Anatomy to Medical Students: Instructor-guided ‘Fly-by’ of Digital 3D Anatomical Structures” Katz, N.K.; Kolomitro, K.; MacKenzie, L.W.; Zevin, B.*

Michelle Lutsch – ““Local” Anesthesia: A history of malignant hyperthermia in southwestern Ontario” Lutsch, M; Healey, J*

Please set aside some time to attend the Medical Student Research Showcase on October 30th. The students will appreciate your interest and support, and you will be amazed at what they have been able to achieve.

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Revisiting Brainstorming

Have you ever used brainstorming in your teaching? If you want groups of students to come up with a variety of ideas quickly, brainstorming is one tried-and-true way to get creative juices flowing.

Since the concept was introduced in Alex Osborn’s 1953 Applied Imagination, brainstorming has caught on in business, education, volunteer organizations and elsewhere to generate ideas and solve problems. Brainstorming, as set out by Osborn, is designed to produce a large quantity of ideas in a short space of time, in order to encourage creativity. He had four simple rules for brainstorming sessions:

  1. Don’t allow criticism
  2. Encourage wild ideas
  3. Go for quantity
  4. Combine and/or improve on others’ ideas

A few years ago, some writers recast “brainstorming” as “brainwriting”. This is a new name for a familiar best practice: brainstorming works best when it’s planned, not haphazard, and it starts with the individual, not the group.

As described by Patrick Allan (citing work of Leigh Thompson and Loran Nordgren) brainwriting avoids the brainstorming pitfall of anchoring: where an early idea streams all other suggestions in a particular direction. “Brainwriting” gives individual team members time to write down their own ideas free of others’ influences.

Osborn himself advocated this (although he didn’t use the term brainwriting), asserting that the best ideas come from a blend of individual and group work. Classroom brainstorming shouldn’t be unplanned: students should have prep and thinking time. As Robert Sutton notes in “Eight Tips for Better Brainstorming”: “Skilled organizers tell participants what the topic will be before a brainstorm.”

Barbara Gross Davis also encourages individual preparation in Tools for Teaching. She suggests posing an opening question and having students spend five minutes writing a response. This “gives students time to think and enriches subsequent discussion.”

Here are some other ideas to encourage better brainstorming in your classes:

  • Assign roles within the brainstorming group. Groups need a moderator (to guide discussion, keep the group on topic, and encourage wide participation), a scribe (or two) to capture the ideas (using either flip charts, Post-It notes, computers or consider audio recording), and members (to contribute and build ideas).
  • MindTools advises that the moderator can help keep the team on task and can help the team avoid narrowing its path too soon. “As the group facilitator, you should share ideas if you have them, but spend your time and energy supporting your team and guiding the discussion. Stick to one conversation at a time, and refocus the group if people become sidetracked.”
  • Remember, the students who are the moderators and scribes aren’t actively brainstorming while they’re attending to their key roles. Encourage teams to share these tasks throughout a term, so it’s not always the same couple of people who end up taking notes rather than contributing their ideas.

And, yes, even with Zoom: with all the above, you may think this is a post-pandemic teaching tool. With a bit of planning and creativity (and the right tools), you can use brainstorming even in our online (synchronous or asynchronus environments. You can use online tools such as PollEverywhere’s “Q&A” function – once students provide initial ideas, classmates can vote up or vote down a suggestion. You can also use Zoom’s built-in white board as a brainstorming wall. (This takes a bit of set-up to get right, but could be worth it for the right topic).

And, what to do with all those ideas the groups generate? Sutton points out that brainstorming should “combine and extend ideas, not just harvest them,” so have a plan for what you want students to do next.

The next steps are sorting and follow-up. In Small Group and Team Communication, Harris and Sherblom recommend an “ACB Idea Sorting Method”:

  • Assign an A to the best one-third of the ideas
  • Assign a C to the least usable one-third
  • The middle one-third automatically receive a B
  • Go back to the B’s and separate them into the A or C category
  • Store the C category ideas for later use
  • Prioritize the A list in terms of item importance, urgency, or applicability to the problem at hand.

The Education Team can help you with incorporating brainstorming and other techniques in your teaching. Contact me to arrange for one-on-one coaching or to facilitate a workshop for your team.


References

7 Tips on Better Brainstorming. (n.d.). OpenIDEO. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from https://openideo.com/blog/seven-tips-on-better-brainstorming

Allan, P. (n.d.). Use “Brainwriting” Instead of Brainstorming to Generate Ideas. Lifehacker. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://lifehacker.com/use-brainwriting-instead-of-brainstorming-to-generate-1615592703?rev=1407126541539&utm_campaign=socialflow_lifehacker_twitter&utm_source=lifehacker_twitter&utm_medium=socialflow

Brainstorming: Generating Many Radical, Creative Ideas. (n.d.). Brainstorming. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2. ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass.

Harris, T. E., & Sherblom, J. (2011). Small group and team communication (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (2009). Joining together: group theory and group skills (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merril.

Sutton, R. (2006, July 25). Eight Tips for Better Brainstorming. Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-07-25/eight-tips-for-better-brainstorming

An earlier version of this post was shared in August 2014

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