Curriculum Matters: Giving Feedback

“Learning without feedback is like learning archery in a darkened room.” (Cross)

The terms feedback and formative assessment have been used frequently in our UG curriculum both in clerkship and pre-clerkship. It’s important that we all recognize a consistent definition of feedback, as well as consider some effective tips and strategies from the educational literature. Sue Fostaty-Young weighs in with some helpful ideas.

Feedback is information regarding students’ performance that is offered with the express purpose of improving their learning and future performance. It is considered one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

Tips for Giving Effective Feedback:

  1. Prepare students to receive the feedback you’re about to give
    • Unfortunately, students do not always recognize feedback as such, especially oral feedback during rounds, or in clinic, etc. Consider starting your end of the conversation by saying “I have some feedback for you”.
    • Alert students at the beginning of a rotation or any workplace teaching to the fact that feedback may be oral, and part of ongoing bedside teaching.
  2. Ask a student how he/she thinks they’re doing
    • In asking a student to comment on their own performance you initiate the process of self-reflection and emphasize the learner’s active role in the feedback process.
    • You may ask them to prepare some notes prior to the feedback session or create a structure for this dialogue.
  3. Be specific and objective about what you observed
    • Begin by identifying what students are doing correctly in their performance.
    • Provide examples of what you observed, not what you inferred. For example, rather than saying “You’re shy” (an inference), you might say “I noticed you made very little eye contact with the patient and you spoke very quietly, making it difficult for her to hear your questions” (an observation).
  4. Give feedback in a timely fashion and in time for students to improve
    • Feedback offered almost immediately after an activity has more meaning because the event and the students’ behaviours during it are fresh in their minds.
    • Timely feedback allows for students to alter their performance, to practice, and improve. Set a time to review improvement if possible.
  5. Outline specific targets or goals; articulate expectation
    • Feedback has the most impact when learning-specific information is offered.
    • Offer specific feedback that is within the student’s ability to improve and a rationale for your suggestions. For example, rather than say, “Stop being so shy,” you might offer specific suggestions such as “Try to make eye contact more regularly so patients know you’re engaged and to gauge their reactions. Speak louder so your instructions can be heard.” You may want to suggest that they practice with a peer or videotape their own practice.
  6. Invite the student to respond to the feedback you’ve just given
    • Initiating this dialogue can help establish whether the student has interpreted the feedback as it was intended, and will be able to use the feedback in a meaningful way.
  7. Help the student develop an action plan with timelines for improvement to help them use the feedback in a constructive way.

Adapted from:
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.

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New Faculty Resources Community

You are invited to view the new Faculty Resources Community:

The Faculty Resources Community was created to provide faculty members, Course Directors, Year Directors and Committee Chairs with advance notice of topics to be discussed at Curriculum Committee meetings as well as easy access to Curriculum Committee Highlights, links to faculty development on teaching and assessment and materials distributed at Course Directors’ Retreats. Other resources posted in the new community include the Future of Medical Education in Canada reports and the latest LCME accreditation standards. We welcome suggestions for additional resources.

The School of Medicine would like to provide all of its faculty members with opportunities to comment on draft policies and procedures prior to their finalization and implementation. It is our aim to post Curriculum Committee agendae to the Faculty Resources Community 48 hours in advance of each meeting. Highlights of each Curriculum Committee meeting will be posted as soon as the minutes of the meeting have been approved. All faculty members are welcome to attend Curriculum Committee meetings, although advance notice is appreciated so that appropriate space can be booked. Faculty participation in Curriculum Committee discussions is at the discretion of the Chair Dr. Michelle Gibson. Requests may be communicated in writing prior to a meeting.

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Educational Development and Faculty Support

Welcome back to another academic year–and welcome to new faculty and to new students! The Educational Development and Faculty Support Team is available to assist you.

Our role is to assist faculty in development and implementation of courses, sessions, assessments, teaching methods, and generally to assist with any educational concerns you have. We work in partnership with MEdTech and with the Bracken Health Sciences librarians to help you.

We are:

  • Sheila Pinchin, Manager of the Education Team, sheila.pinchin@queensu.ca ext. 78757
  • Theresa Suart, Educational Developer, theresa.suart@queensu.ca ext. 75485
  • Eleni Katsoulas, Assessment and Evaluation Consultant, eleni.katsoulas@queensu.ca
  • Alice Rush-Rhodes, Special Curricular Assistant, arush@queensu.ca
  • Catherine Isaacs, our Coordinator of Accreditation is also a part of the team, and helps us keep accreditation and quality assurance as part of our focus.

Feel free to contact any of us. We look forward to meeting you!

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RATs (Readiness Assessment Tests): To time or not to time?

A very recent study at Regis University School of Pharmacy, which won best poster at the Team Based Learning Cooperative’s Annual Meeting, determined that students preferred timed tests vs. tests with no time limits.  Students also indicated that they preferred to be told that five minutes remained once fifty percent of the class had completed the iRAT (variable time limit) vs. being informed of the ttal time allotted to complete the iRAT (defined time limit).  (Richetti, C. et al, 2012)

This has value for us to explore.  The investigators were addressing the problem of “down time” in RATs where some students have finished and others have not.  Of the students surveyed (74) 97% responded to suggest that using the strategy of variable time limits was useful, and not likely to induce as much anxiety as the defined time limit.

Why not try this method with your students when you give a RAT?  Carefully observe, (and if there is another facilitator with you, use her/his observations) to determine when half the class has completed the RAT.  Some of our faculty ask students to raise a hand when the group or individual has finished a RAT, or use some other signal like a green card attached on their group clipboard.  That will enable you to give a “5 minute warning” to the rest of the class.

If you try this, please let us know what your findings are.

By the way, the investigators also found some additional benefits of timing RATs from their survey:

Our survey determined that the timing of iRATs decreases “down-time”, helps students increase their confidence in their ability to perform well on timed exams (e.g. board exams) and provides more time to focus on applications[tasks]. While students reported an increase in anxiety caused by the timing of iRATs, they reported they preferred the timed iRATs over the iRATs that were not timed.

Richetti, Charlotte, Brunner, Jason M., Fete, Matthew, Luckey, Stephen. & Nelson, Michael. (2012). “Student Perceptions on the Value of Timing Readiness Assurance Tests.  Poster presented at TBLC Annual Meeting, St. Petersburg.

 

Posted on

RATs (Readiness Assessment Tests): To time or not to time?

A very recent study at Regis University School of Pharmacy, which won best poster at the Team Based Learning Cooperative’s Annual Meeting, determined that students preferred timed tests vs. tests with no time limits.  Students also indicated that they preferred to be told that five minutes remained once fifty percent of the class had completed the iRAT (variable time limit) vs. being informed of the ttal time allotted to complete the iRAT (defined time limit).  (Richetti, C. et al, 2012)

This has value for us to explore.  The investigators were addressing the problem of “down time” in RATs where some students have finished and others have not.  Of the students surveyed (74) 97% responded to suggest that using the strategy of variable time limits was useful, and not likely to induce as much anxiety as the defined time limit.

Why not try this method with your students when you give a RAT?  Carefully observe, (and if there is another facilitator with you, use her/his observations) to determine when half the class has completed the RAT.  Some of our faculty ask students to raise a hand when the group or individual has finished a RAT, or use some other signal like a green card attached on their group clipboard.  That will enable you to give a “5 minute warning” to the rest of the class.

If you try this, please let us know what your findings are.

By the way, the investigators also found some additional benefits of timing RATs from their survey:

Our survey determined that the timing of iRATs decreases “down-time”, helps students increase their confidence in their ability to perform well on timed exams (e.g. board exams) and provides more time to focus on applications[tasks]. While students reported an increase in anxiety caused by the timing of iRATs, they reported they preferred the timed iRATs over the iRATs that were not timed.

Richetti, Charlotte, Brunner, Jason M., Fete, Matthew, Luckey, Stephen. & Nelson, Michael. (2012). “Student Perceptions on the Value of Timing Readiness Assurance Tests.  Poster presented at TBLC Annual Meeting, St. Petersburg.

 

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