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Appendix: Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine, 1901-2009

1901 Emil von Behring serum therapy, diphtheria and tetanus
1902 Ronald Ross anopheles mosquito and malaria
1903 Neils Finsen light therapy for lupus
1904 Ivan Pavlov digestive physiology - conditioned reflex
1905 H.H. Robert Koch discovery of tubercle bacillus
1906 C. Golgi, S. Ramon y Cajal neural structure
1907 Charles Laveran malarial parasite
1908 Paul Ehrlich immune function--side chain theory
Ilya Metchnikoff immune function--phagocytosis
1909 E.T. Kocher thyroid physiology, pathology, and surgery
1910 A. Kossel biochemistry of cell nucleus; amino acids
1911 A. Gullstrand dioptrics of eye
1912 Alexis Carrel vascular anastomosis and organ grafts
1913 C.R. Richet anaphylaxis, passive immunity
1914 R. Bárány vestibular apparatus of ear and equilibrium
1915-18 No award
1919 Jules Bordet immune lysis, antibody complement
1920 S.A.S. Krogh regulation of microcirculation
1921 No award
1922 O. Meyerhoff, A. Hill (shared) bioenergetics of muscle physiology
1923 Frederick Banting insulin (shared with C. H. Best)
J.J.R. Macleod " (shared with J. B. Collip)
1924 Willem Einthoven electrocardiography
1925 No award
1926 J. A. G. Fibiger bacterial cause of cancer
1927 J. Wagner-Jauregg malaria therapy for syphilis
1928 C. J. H. Nicolle role of lice in typhus transmission
1929 C. Eijkmann Vitamins in nutrition (thiamine)
F.G. Hopkins "
1930 Karl Landsteiner human blood groups
1931 Otto Warburg cellular respiration enzymes (cytochrome a)
1932 C. Sherrington, E. Adrian neurophysiology
1933 T.H. Morgan genetics chromosomes in heredity
1934 George Minot liver therapy for pernicious anemia
William Murphy "
George Whipple hemoglobin metabolism (liver, iron)
1935 Hans Spemann experimental embryology
1936 H. Dale, O. Loewi acetylcholine
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi Vitamin C (metabolism of)
1938 C.J.F. Heymans aortic and carotid chemoreceptors
1939 Gerhard Domagk Prontosil (prototype of sulfa drugs)
1940-42 No award
1943 Henrik Dam Vitamin K discovery
Edward Doisy Vitamin K structure
1944 J. Erlanger, H.S. Gasser nerve conduction (velocty a diameter)
1945 Ernst B. Chain penicillin
Alexander Fleming "
Howard W. Florey "
1946 H.J. Muller X-ray induced gene mutations
1947 C.F. Cori, G.T. Cori catalytic conversion of glycogen
B.A. Houssay pituitary hormones in sugar metabolism
1948 P. H. Müller DDT as an insecticide
1949 W.R. Hess brain mapping, neurophysiological methods
A.A.C. Egas Moniz frontal leucotomy and cerebral angiography
1950 P.S. Hench adrenocortical hormones
E.C. Kendall "
T. Reichstein "
1951 Max Theiler yellow fever virus and vaccine
1952 S. Waksman streptomycin
1953 H.A. Krebs, F.A.Lipman citric acid cycle acetyl-coenzyme A
1954 John F. Enders culturing of poliomyelitis virus
Frederick Chapman Robbins "
Thomas Huckle Weller "
1955 Axel H.T. Theorell oxidation enzymes
1956 A. Cournand, W. Forssmann, cardiac catheterization, circulatory pathology
D.W. Richards, Jr.
1957 Daniel Bovet acetylcholine, epinephrine, histamine
1958 G.W. Beadle, E.L. Tatum one gene- one enzyme theory
J. Lederberg genetic properties of bacteria
1959 A. Kornberg, S. Ochoa DNA and RNA synthesis
1960 F. Macfarlane Burnet immune tolerance (clone theory)
Peter Medawar "
1961 G. von Békésy mechanism of cochlear stimulation
1962 F. Crick, J.D. Watson, structure of DNA
M.H. F. Wilkins
1963 J. C. Eccles, A. Hodgkin, membrane potential of nerves
A. Huxley
1964 K. Bloch, F. Lynen cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
1965 F. Jacob, A.M. Lwoff, operon theory of genetic control
J. L. Monod
1966 C.B. Huggins (shared) hormonal treatment of prostate cancer
1967 R.A. Granit, H.K. Hartline physiology of retina and Vitamin A
G. Wald
1968 R.W. Holley, H.G. Khorana, genetic code in protein synthesis (RNA)
M.W. Nirenberg
1969 M. Delbrück, A.D. Hershey, molecular structure of viral genes (phage)
S.E. Luria
1970 J. Axelrod, B. Katz, U. von Euler neurotransmitters, catecholamines
1971 E. W. Sutherland, Jr. hormone action (cyclic AMP)

1972 G.M. Edelman chemical structure of antibodies
R.R. Porter "

1973 Konrad Lorenz ethology: animal behaviour
Nikolaas Tinbergen " : animal behavior
Karl von Frisch " : communication in bees

1974 A. Claude microstructure of the cell
C.R. de Duvé "
G.E. Palade "


1975 D. Baltimore, R. Dulbecco, tumour viruses and host genetics
H.M. Temin

1976 B.S. Blumberg Australian Ag, Hepatitis B vaccine
D. Carelton Gadjusek slow virus infections (kuru)

1977 R.C.L. Guillemin hypothalamic hormones (brain peptides)
A.V. Schally "
Roslyn Yalow " (radioimmunoassay)

1978 W. Arber molecular genetics: host-virus interaction
D. Nathans, H. O. Smith restriction enzymes (DNA cleavage)

1979 Allan Cormack computer axial tomography
G. N. Hounsfield "

1980 Baruj Benacerraf HLA antigens (gene control of)
Jean Dausset " (recognition of)
G.D. Snell "

1981 D.H. Hubel, T.N.Wiesel neurophysiology of vision
R.W. Sperry "split-brain" hemispheric neurophysiology

1982 S.K. Bergström prostaglandins
B.I. Samuelsson "
J.R. Vane "

1983 Barbara McClintock chromosome crossover, gene transposition

1984 N. Jerne immune theory: anti-antibody,
G.J.F.Köhler, C. Milstein immune technology: hybridoma

1985 Michael Stuart Brown hypercholesterolemia and cell metabolism
Joseph Leonard Goldstein "

1986 S. Cohen cell (epidermal) growth factors
R. Levi-Montalcini

1987 S. Tonegawa model of antibody production

1988 James W. Black rational derivatives (histamine-, b-blockers)
Gertrude B. Elion " (anti DNA drugs)
G.H. Hitchings "

1989 J. Michael Bishop genetic causes of cancer
Harold E. Varmus "

1990 E. Donnell Thomas bone marrow transplant
Joseph E. Murray kidney transplantation

1991 E. Neher cellular ion channels
B. Sakmann "

1992 Edwin Krebs protein phosphorylation
Edmond Fisher "

1993 Philip Sharp eukaryotic (split) genes
Richard Roberts "

1994 Martin Rodbell G-protein cell signal transmission
Alfred Gilman "

1995 Edward B. Lewis studies on drosophila
Christianne Nusslein-Vohard "
Eric Wieschaus "

1996 Rolf Zinkernagel cellular immune recognition
Peter Doherty "

1997 Stanely B. Prusiner prion hypothesis

1998 Robert E. Furchgott nitric oxide as a cardiovascular signal
Louis J. Ignarro "
Fereid Murad "

1999 Günter Blobel protein signals in cells

2000 Arvid Carlsson signal transduction in the nervous system
Paul Greengard "
Eric Kandel "

2001 Leland H. Hartwell key regulators of cell cycle
R. Timothy Hunt "
Paul M. Nurse "

2002 Syndey Brenner genetic regulation of organ development
H. Robert Horowitz " and programmed cell death
John E. Sulston "

2003 Peter C. Lauterbur magnetic resonance imaging
Sir Peter Mansfield "

2004 Richard Axel odorant receptors; olfactory organization
Linda B. Buck "

2005 J. Robin Warren Helicobacter pylori as cause of ulcers
Barry J. Marshall "

2006 Andrew Z. Fire Silencing RNA interference gene
Carig C. Mello "

2007 Mario R. Capecchi Gene modifications in mice by stem cells
Martin J. Evans "
Oliver Smithies " " "

2008 Harald zur Hausen   discovery of HPV virus
Françoise Barre-Sinoussi   discovery of HIV virus
Luc Montagnier                        “

2009            Elizabeth H. Blackburn  telomerase protects ends of chromosomes
Carole W. Greider                                    “
Jack W. Szostak                                    “    

2010 Robert G. Edwards in vitro fertilization

2011 Bruce Beutler activation of innate immunity
Jules A. Hoffman                                “
Ralph M. Steinman dendritic cell in adaptive immunity    

Other Nobel Prizes of Interest to Medicine

Physics
1901 W. Roentgen X-rays
1903 M. & P. Curie, H. Becquerel radioactivity

Chemistry
1911 Marie Curie radium and polonium
1954 Linus Pauling X-ray crystallography
1962 Max Perutz & J. Kendrew structure of hemoglobin
1991 R. R. Ernst MRI
1993 Kary Mullis & Michael Smith PCR and DNA chemisty
2002 Fenn, Tanaka, Wüthrich spectroscopy of biological molecules
2003 Agre and Mackinnon water and ion channels
2006  R. Kornberg eukaryotic transcription
2009  Ramakrishnan, Steitz, & Yonath  ribosome

Peace
1962 Linus Pauling test ban treaty
1985 Chazov and Lown Int Phys Prevention Nuclear War
1997 Jody Williams landmine ban
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières health care provision
2007 IPCC and Al Gore climate change

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