Hist 488/884 History of the Nobel Prize

Resources and Reading List

 

Nobel Prize Websites:

 

Official website of the Nobel Foundation

http://nobelprize.org

 

The Nomination Database

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/nomination/database.html

 

LSU info on women, minorities in science

http://www.lib.lsu.edu/hum/mlk/srs119.html

 

General Reference Materials

1980. Les prix Nobel: Prizes, presentations, biographies, and lectures. Stockholm: Almquist & WiksellroiInternational.

1987. Nobel Prize Winners: an H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary. New York: H.W. Wilson.

1994. The Nobel Peace Prize: The meaning and acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize. Frankfurt am Main and New York: P. Lang.

1997. Nobel Prize Winners, 1992-1996, Supplement: an H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary. New York: H.W. Wilson.

2002. The Who's Who of Nobel prize Winners, 1901-2002. 4th ed., ed. Louise S. Sherby,  Phoenix AR: Oryx Press.

 

Afulezi, Uju Nkwocha, and Uju Ugochukwu Afulezi. African and Africa-related Nobel Prize Winners: Portraitures in Excellence. Lankahm MD: University Press of America, 2002.

 

Black, Harry. Canada and the Nobel Prize; Biographies and Fascinating Facts. Markham, ON: Pembroke, 2002.

 

Crawford, Elisabeth 2002. The Nobel Population; A Census of the Nominators and Nominees for the Prizes in Physics and Chemistry, 1901-1950. Tokyo: Universal Academy Press.

 

Davis, Anita and Maria J. Selvidge (2007). Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners. Jefferson, NC: McFarlane.

 

Feliciano DV. (2009) Nobel Prize winners who were trained as surgeons.

 

Fox, Daniel M., Marcia Meldrum and Ira Rezak, eds. 1990. Nobel Laureates in Medicine or Physiology: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland.

 

Hargittai, István. The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science and Scientists. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

 

Karier, Thomas Mark (2010). Forty Years of the Nobel Prize in Economics. New York: Cambridge U Press.

 

Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin, and Nils Rigertz. The Nobel Prize; The First 100 Years. River Edge, NJ: Imperial College Press, 2001.

MacCallum, Thomas W. 1938. The Nobel prize-winners and the  Nobel foundation, 1901-1937. Zurich: The Central European Times Publishing Co.

Opfell, Olga S. 1986. The Lady Laureates: Women who have won the Nobel Prize. Metuchen NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Rifkind, David and Geraldine L. Freeman. 2005. The Nobel Prize winning discoveries in infectious diseases. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005

 

Sourkes, Theodore L. 1967. Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology, 1901-1965, new ed. London: Abelard-Schuman.

Stevenson, Lloyd G. 1953. Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology, 1901-1950. New York: Henry Schuman.

Zuckerman, H. 1991. The Outer Circle: women in the scientific community. New York, Norton.

 

Zuckerman, H. 1996. The Scientific Elite: Nobel laureates in the United States. New Brunswick, MJ, Transaction Publishers.

 

 


Specific Bibliography

 

 

1983. “What's-his-name wins Nobel prize.” The Economist 289(Oct.): 73.

 

1988. “Nobel prize for medicine: winning design.” The Economist 309(Oct.): 94.

 

1990. “Nobel prize for medicine: mix and match.” The Economist 317(Oct.): 108.

 

1991. The Baltimore Affair; Ignoble. Economist: 83.

 

1997. “Nobel prize in medicine: still a lot to learn.” The Economist 345(Oct.): 104+.

 

1998. “Nobel scientist [Mullis] questions cause of AIDS: US chemist says he doubts HIV to blame.” Toronto Star: A15.

 

1998. No proof HIV causes AIDS, says speaker [Mullis]: biochemist describes AZT as a poison. Globe and Mail. Toronto: A9.

 

2008. Nobel award opens old wounds. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 8(11):659, 2008 Nov.

 

2008. Philanthropy needed... Nature. 451(7176):224, 2008 Jan 17.

 

Aaseng, N. 1987. The disease fighters: The Nobel prize in medicine [juvenile]. Minneapolis, Lerner Publications.

 

Aaseng, N. 1988. The inventors: The Nobel prizes in Chemistry, physics, and medicine [juvenile]. Minneapolis, Lerner Publications.

 

Abbadessa G. et 106 al. 2009  Unsung hero Robert C. Gallo. Science. 323(5911):206-7, 2009 Jan 9.

 

Abbott A. 2009. Neuroscience: One hundred years of Rita. Nature. 458(7238):564-7, 2009 Apr 2.

 

Abir-Am, P. G. 1991. “Nobelesse oblige: lives of molecular biologist [essay review].” Isis 82: 326-343.

 

Alter, Harvey J., and Michael Houghton. "Hepatitus C Virus and eliminating post-transfusion hepatitis." Nature Medicine 6.10 (2000): 1082-86.

 

Anderson, Warwick (2008). Collectors of Lost Souls; Turning Kuru Scientists into White Men. Baltimore; Johns Hopkins U Press.

 

Apple, R. D. 1996. Vitamania: Vitamins in American Culture. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press.

 

Astin, H. S. (1991). Citation Classics; Women's and Men's Perceptions of their Contributions to Science. The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community. H. Zuckerman, J. Cole and J. T. Bruer. New York, London, W.W. Norton: 57-70.

 

Attura, Azar. 2003. The Nobel Prize winners of Italy, 1906-2002. Smyrna, DE : Griffon House Publications for the Bagehot Council.

 

Ballantyne C. 2008. Nobel decision stirs viral dismay. Nature Medicine. 14(11):1132, 2008 Nov.

 

Barber, B. 1952. Science and the Social Order. New York, The Free Press.

 

Bartholomew JR. One hundred years of the Nobel Science Prizes.  Isis. 96(4):625-32, 2005 Dec.

 

Basten, A. 1996. “Australia's fourth Nobel laureate for medicine.” Medical Journal of Australia 165: 656-657.

 

Beardsley, Tim. "Profile: David Baltimore, a Troubled Homecoming." Scientific American.January (1992): 33-34.

 

Beck WC. 1986. Alexis Carrel and Carl Beck--a historical footnote. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine. 30(1):148-51.

 

Becsei-Kilborn E. (2010). Scientific discovery and scientific reputation: the reception of Peyton Rous' discovery of the chicken sarcoma virus. Journal of the History of Biology. 43(1):111-57.

 

Bentley R. 2005. The development of penicillin: genesis of a famous antibiotic. [Review] [52 refs] Perspectives in Biology & Medicine. 48(3):444-52.

 

Berg, Paul and Maxine Singer. 2003. George Beadle, an uncommon farmer : the emergence of genetics in the 20th century. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

 

Bernhard, C. G., E. Crawford, et al., Eds. 1982. Science, Technology, and Society in the Time of Alfred Nobel. Oxford and New York, Nobel Foundation and Pergamon Press.

 

Bestetti RB. Martins CA. Cardinalli-Neto A., 2009 Justice where justice is due: A posthumous Nobel Prize to Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), the discoverer of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease). International Journal of Cardiology. 134(1):9-16, 2009 May 1.

 

Bishop, J. Michael. 2003. How to win the Nobel Prize : an unexpected life in science. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press.

 

Bliss M. 1993. Rewriting medical history: Charles Best and the Banting and Best myth. Journal of the History of Medicine & Allied Sciences. 48(3):253-74, Jul.

 

Bliss, M. 1982. The Discovery of Insulin. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart.

 

Bliss, M. 1984. Banting; A Biography. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart.

 

Bosch F. Rosich L. 2008. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to pharmacology: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his Nobel Prize. [Review] [33 refs] Pharmacology. 82(3):171-9, 2008.

 

Brannigan, A. 1981. The Social Basis of Scientific Discoveries. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

 

Broad, W. J. 1980. “Riddle of the Nobel debate.” Science 207: 37-38.

 

Bruce-Chwatt, l. J. (1982). The rise of tropical medicine: milestones of discovery and application. Science, Technology, and Society in the Time of Alfred Nobel. C. G. Bernhard, E. Crawford and P. Sörbom. Oxford and New York, Nobel Foundation and Pergamon Press: 167-185.

 

Butler D. 2008. A very mysterious foundation. Nature. 451(7177):382-3, 2008 Jan 24.

 

Bynum, W. (2010). Experimenting with fire: giving malaria. Lancet. 376(9752):1534-5.

 

Canguilhem, G. (1963). Role of Analogies and Models in Biological Discovery. Scientific Change: Historical Studies in the Intellectual, Social and Technical Conditions for Scientific Discovery and Technical Invention, from Antiquity to the Present. Symposium on the History of Science, Oxford, 9-15 July 1961. A. C. Crombie. London, Heinemann: 507-520.

 

Cappelletti, V. (1980). Discovery and Vocation. On Scientific Discovery. The Erice Lectures, 1977. M. D. Grmek, R. S. Cohen and G. Cimino. Dordrecht, D. Reidel: 211-226.

 

Carrel, A. 1935. Man the Unknown. New York and London, Harper and Brothers.

 

Carrel, A. 1950. The Voyage to Lourdes. New York, Harper.

 

Carrel, A. 1981. Reflexions sur la conduite de la vie suivi de la Priere. Paris, Presses Pocket.

 

Charles, Daniel. 2005. Master mind : the rise and fall of Fritz Haber, a Nobel laureate who launched the age of chemical warfare.  New York : Ecco.

 

Charlton BG. 2007. Measuring revolutionary biomedical science 1992-2006 using Nobel prizes, Lasker (clinical medicine) awards and Gairdner awards (NLG metric). Medical Hypotheses. 69(1):1-5

 

Charlton BG. 2007. Scientometric identification of elite 'revolutionary science' research institutions by analysis of trends in Nobel prizes 1947-2006. [Editorial] Medical Hypotheses. 68(5):931-4.

 

Charlton BG. 2007. Which are the best nations and institutions for revolutionary science 1987-2006? Analysis using a combined metric of Nobel prizes, Fields medals, Lasker awards and Turing awards (NFLT metric).  Medical Hypotheses. 68(6):1191-4.

 

Charlton BG. 2007. Why there should be more science Nobel prizes and laureates - And why proportionate credit should be awarded to institutions. [Editorial] Medical Hypotheses. 68(3):471-3.

 

Chastel, Claude (2009). Il y a 60 ans (1949), les cultures cellulaires permettaient enfin de multiplier aisement les virus de la poliomyelite. Histoire des Sciences Médicales 43 (4): 345-54.

 

Clare, A.-W. r. 1987. “Nobel Prize conversations with Sir John Eccles, Roger Sperry, Ilya Prigogine, Brian Josephson (book review).” The American Journal of Psychiatry 144(Dec.): 1617.

 

Clark S.J., J. T. (1969). The Philosophy of Science and the History of Science. Critical Problems in the HIstory of Science. M. Clagett. Madison, Milwaukee, and London, University of Wisconsin Press: 103-140.

 

Cohen J. Enserink M. 2008. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. HIV, HPV researchers honored, but one scientist is left out. Science. 322(5899):174-5, 2008 Oct 10.

 

Comroe, J. J. 1977. “Retrospectoscope: Roast Pig and Scientific Discovery Part I and II.” American Review of Respiratory Diseases 115(May and June): 853-860; 1035-1044.

 

Cosimi AB. 2006. Surgeons and the Nobel Prize. Archives of Surgery. 141(4):340-8, Apr.

 

Cozzens, S. E. (1990). Autonomy and Power in Science. Theories of Science in Society. S. E. Cozzens and T. F. Gieryn. Bloomington and Indianapolis, University of Indiana Press: 164-184.

 

Cozzens, S. E. 1989. FIND Social Control and Multiple Discovery in Science. Albany, State University of New York.

 

Cozzens, S. E. and T. F. Gieryn (1990). Introduction: Putting Science back in Society. Theories of Science in Society. S. E. Cozzens and T. F. Gieryn. Bloomington and Indianapolis, University of Indiana Press: 1-15.

 

Crawford, E., J. L. Heilbron, et al. 1987. The Nobel Population; A census of the Nominators and Nominees for the Prizes in Physics and Chemistry, 1901-1937. Berkeley and Uppsala, Office for History of Science and Technology, U California and Office for History of Science Uppsala University.

 

Crawford, E.-T. 1984. The beginnings of the Nobel institution : the science prizes, 1901-1915. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press.

 

Crawford, Elisabeth, ed. 2002. Historical Studies in the Nobel Archives. Tokyo: Universal Academy Press.

 

Crombie, A. C. (1963). Introduction. Scientific Change: Historical Studies in the Intellectual, Social and Technical Conditions for Scientific Discovery and Technical Invention, from Antiquity to the Present. Symposium on the History of Science, Oxford, 9-15 July 1961. A. C. Crombie. London, Heinemann: 1-11.

 

Crombie, A. C., Ed. 1963. Scientific Change: Historical Studies in the Intellectual, Social and Technical Conditions for Scientific Discovery and Technical Invention, from Antiquity to the Present. Symposium on the History of Science, Oxford, 9-15 July 1961. London, Heinemann.

 

Cuny, H. 1970. Carrel. Paris, Seghers.

 

Darden, L. (1980). Theory Construction in Genetics. Scientific Discovery; Case Studies. T. Nickles. Dordrecht, D. Reidel: 151-170.

 

Dechend R. Luft FC. 2008. Are we getting closer to a Nobel prize for unraveling preeclampsia?. [Review] [36 refs] Current Cardiology Reports. 10(6):440-7, 2008 Nov.

 

Dente CJ. Feliciano DV. 2005. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944): Nobel Laureate, 1912. Archives of Surgery. 140(6):609-10.

 

Doherty PC. 2007. Challenged by complexity: my twentieth century in immunology. Annual Review of Immunology. 25:1-19.

 

Dubos, R. J. 1976. The Professor, the Institute, and DNA. New York, Rockefeller University Press.

 

Durkin, J. T. 1965. Hope for our Time. New York, Harper and Row.

 

Eisenhart, M. A. and E. Finkel 1998. Women's Science. Learning and Succeeding from the Margins. Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.

 

Englehardt Jr., H. T. (1985). Typologies of Disease: Nosologies Revisited. Logic of Discovery and Diagnosis in Medicine. K. Schaffner. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University of California Press: 56-71.

 

English, James F. 2005. The Economy of Prestige: Prizes, Awards and the Circulation of Cultural Value. Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press.

 

Erren TC. 2008.Hamming's "open doors" and group creativity as keys to scientific excellence: the example of Cambridge. Medical Hypotheses. 70(3):473-7, 2008.

 

Esaki, L. 1997. “Welcoming remarks about the Janus phenomenon in science.” Cellular and Molecular Biology 43: 257-261.

 

Espmark, K. 1991. The Nobel Prize in literature : a study of the criteria behind the choices. Boston, G.K. Hall.

 

Fant, K. 1993. Alfred Nobel; A Biography. New York, Little Brown.

 

Feliciano DV. 2009. Nobel Prize winners who were trained as surgeons. American Surgeon. 75(1):15-9; quiz 97, 2009 Jan.

 

Fenner F. Ada G. 2007. Frank MacFarlane Burnet: two personal views. Nature Immunology. 8(2):111-3.

 

Ferry, Georgina. 2007. Max Perutz and the Secret of Life. Chatto & Windus and Cold Spring Harbour Press.

 

Fine, E. H. 1998. Barbara McClintock, Nobel Prize Geneticist, Saunders Book Company.

 

Fishman RS. 2007. The Nobel Prize of 1906. Archives of Ophthalmology. 125(5):690-4, May.

 

Fleck, Ludwik. Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

 

Fogel, R. W. 1995. “Nobel economist on the importance of religion to politics.” The American Enterprise 6: 79-80.

 

Frankenburg FR. Baldessarini RJ. 2008. Neurosyphilis, malaria, and the discovery of antipsychotic agents. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 16(5):299-307, 2008.

 

Funk, C. 1922. The Vitamines. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins.

 

Galison, P. 1987. How Experiments End. Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.

 

Galison, P. 1988. “Philosophy in the Laboratory.” The Journal of Philosophy: 525-527.

 

Galison, P. 1997. “Three Laboratories.” Social Research 64(3): 1127-1155.

 

Ganelius, T., Ed. 1986? Progress in Science and its Social Conditions: Proceedings of a Nobel Symposium, 1983. Oxford, Pergamon Press Ltd.

 

Garfield, E. and A. Welljams-Dorof 1992. “Of Nobel class: a citation perspective on high impact research authors.” Theoretical Medicine 13: 117-135.

 

Gaston, J. 1973. Originality and Competition in Science: A Study of the British High Energy Physics Community. Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.

 

Gaston, J. 1978. The Reward System in British and American Science. New York, Wiley.

 

Glass, B. (1963). The Establishment of Modern Genetical Theory as an Example of the Interaction of Different Models, Techniques, and Inferences. Scientific Change: Historical Studies in the Intellectual, Social and Technical Conditions for Scientific Discovery and Technical Invention, from Antiquity to the Present. Symposium on the History of Science, Oxford, 9-15 July 1961. A. C. Crombie. London, Heinemann: 521-541.

 

Goldberg, J. 1988. Anatomy of a Scientific Discovery. Toronto, New York, London, Sydney, Auckland, Bantam Books.

 

Goodwin, J. S. and J. M. Goodwin 1984. “The Tomato Effect; Rejection of Highly Efficacious Therapies.” JAMA 251(18): 2387-90.

 

Goodwin, J. S. and M. R. Tangum 1998. “Battling Quackery.” Archives of Internal Medicine 158(9 NOv.): 2187-2191.

 

Gorelick, P. B. and J. Biller 1991. “Egas Moniz: neurologist, statesman, and Nobel Laureate.” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 118: 200-202.

 

Gozum M. 2009.  An award for science is an obsolete notion. . Science. 323(5911):207-8, 2009 Jan 9.

 

Green, E. 1997. “The uncertainty particle.” New Statesman (London, England: 1996) 126(Oct.): 32.

 

Grmek, M. D. (1980). A Plea for Freeing the History of Scientific Discoveries from Myth. On Scientific Discovery. The Erice Lectures, 1977. M. D. Grmek, R. S. Cohen and G. Cimino. Dordrecht, D. Reidel: 9-42.

 

Grmek, M. D., R. S. Cohen, et al., Eds. 1980. On Scientific Discovery. The Erice Lectures, 1977. Dordrecht, D. Reidel.

 

Gross D. and Schafer G. (2011).  Egas Moniz (1874-1955) and the "invention" of modern psychosurgery: a historical and ethical reanalysis under special consideration of Portuguese original sources. Neurosurgical Focus. 30(2):E8.

 

Guillemin, Jeanne. 2002. Choosing Scientific Patrimony: Sir Ronald Ross, Alphonse Laveran, and the Mosquito-Vector Hypothesis for Malaria. J. History of Medicine & Allied Sciences 57: 385-409.

 

Hacker, C. 1998. Nobel prize winners [juvenile]. New York, Crabtree.

 

Haddad, G.E. 1999. “Medicine and the culture of commemoration: representing Robert Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillis.” Osiris. 14: 118-37.

 

Hagstrom, W. O. (1982). Gift-Giving as an Organizing Principle in Science [1965]. Science in Context; Readings in the Sociology of Science. B. Barnes and D. Edge. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press: 21-34.

 

Hansen, B. 2000. “Has the Laboratory Been a Closet; Gay and Lesbian Lives in Science.” unpublished MS.

 

Hardin, G. J., Ed. 1969. Science, Conflict and Society; Readings from Scientific American. San Fransisco, W. H. Freeman.

 

Harrow, B. 1955. Casimir Funk, Pioneer in Vitamins and Hormones. New York, Dodd Mead.

 

Hellman S. 1992. Curies, cure, and culture. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine. 36(1):39-45.

 

Heffermehl, F. S. (2010). The Nobel Peace Prize: What Nobel Really Wanted. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

 

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Holmes, F. L. 1991-1993. Hans Krebs. New York, Oxford University Press.

 

Horgan, John. "Profile: Francis H. Crick, the Mephistopheles of Neurobiology." Scientific American.February (1992): 32-33.

 

Hosztafi, S. 1997. “The Discovery of Alkaloids.” Pharmazie 52(7): 546-550.

 

Hubbard, R. 1979. “Reflections on the Story of the Double Helix.” Women's Studies International Quarterly 2(3): 261-273.

 

Hubbard, R. 1990. The Politics of Women's Biology. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press.

 

Hubbard, R. and R. C. Lewontin 1996. “Pitfalls of Genetic Testing.” New England Journal of Medicine 334(18): 1192-4.

 

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Isepponi O. 2004. Huwiler V. Boschung U. Theodor Kocher's surgical and clinical case presentations. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 78(1):192-4.

 

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Jacob, F. 1988. The Statue Within: An Autobiography. New York, Basic Books.

 

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Johnson, George. 2007 “Bright Scientists; Dim Notions [Watson resigns]. New York Times, 28 October.

 

Judson, H. 1979. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. New York, Simon and Schuster.

 

Judson, H. F. 1993. “Frederick Sanger, Erwin Chargaff, and the Metamorphosis of Specificity.” Gene 135: 19-23.

 

Judson, H. F. 2003. “No Nobel for Whining.” New York Times, 20 October

 

Kandel ER. 2008. Interview with Eric R. Kandel: from memory, free will, and the problem with Freud to fortunate decisions. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (15), 2008.

 

Kandel, Eric R. 2006. In search of memory : the emergence of a new science of mind. New York : W.W. Norton & Co.

 

Kantha Sri S. 1991 The question of nepotism in the award of Nobel prizes: a critique of the view of Hans Krebs.  Medical Hypotheses 34(1):28-32.

 

Kantha, S. S. 1995. “Is Karl Landsteiner the Einstein of the biomedical sciences?” Medical Hypotheses 44: 254-256.

 

Kantorovich, A. 1993. Scientific Discovery; Logic and Tinkering. Albany, State University of New York.

 

Kaufmann SH. 2008. Elie Metchnikoff's and Paul Ehrlich's impact on infection biology. Microbes & Infection. 10(14-15):1417-9, 2008 Nov-Dec.

 

Kaufmann SH. 2008.Immunology's foundation: the 100-year anniversary of the Nobel Prize to Paul Ehrlich and Elie Metchnikoff. . Nature Immunology. 9(7):705-12, 2008 Jul.

 

Kaufmann SH. Schaible UE. 2005. 100th anniversary of Robert Koch's Nobel Prize for the discovery of the tubercle bacillus. Trends in Microbiology. 13(10):469-75, Oct.

 

Keller, E. F. (1991). The Wo/Man Scientist: Issues of Sex and Gender in the Pursuit of Science. The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community. H. Zuckerman, J. Cole and J. T. Bruer. New York, London, W.W. Norton: 227-236.

 

Keller, E. F. 1983. A Feeling for the Organism. San Francisco, W.H. Freeman.

 

Keller, Evelyn Fox. The Century of the Gene. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, 2000.

 

Kevles, D. and L. Hood 1992. The Code of Codes; Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Geonome Project. Cambridge MA Harvard University Press.

 

Kevles, D. J. (1995). Pursuing the Unpopular: A History of Courage, Viruses, and Cancer. Hidden Histories of Science. R. B. Silvers. New York, New York Review of Books: 69-112.

 

Kevles, D. J. 1998. The Baltimore case : a trial of politics, science, and character. New York and London, Norton.

 

Kingston W. 2004. Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery. Journal of the History of Medicine & Allied Sciences. 59(3):441-62, Jul.

 

Klug, A. 1968. “Rosalind Franklin and the discovery of the structure of DNA.” Nature 219(156): 808-810.

 

Klug, A. 1974. “Rosalind Franklin and the Double Helix.” Nature 248(451): 787-788.

 

Knorr-Cetina, K. and M. Mulkay (1983). Introduction. Science Observed; Perspectives on the Social Study of Science. K. Knorr-Cetina and M. Mulkay. London, Beverly Hills, new Delhi, Sage: 1-17.

 

Knorr-Cetina, K. D. 1981. The Manufacture of Knowledge; An Essay on the Constructivist and Contextual Nature of Science. Oxford, Pergamon Press.

 

Koenig R. 2006. The legacy of great science: the work of Nobel Laureate Gertrude Elion lives on. Oncologist. 11(9):961-5, Oct.

 

Kolata, G. 1997. They Should Give a Prize for Ambition. New York Times.

 

Kruuk, Hans. 2003. Niko’s nature : the life of Niko Tinbergen and his science of animal behaviour; with drawings and photographs by Niko Tinbergen. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press.

 

Kuhn, T. S. (1963). The Function of Dogma in Scientific Research. Scientific Change: Historical Studies in the Intellectual, Social and Technical Conditions for Scientific Discovery and Technical Invention, from Antiquity to the Present. Symposium on the History of Science, Oxford, 9-15 July 1961. A. C. Crombie. London, Heinemann: 347-369.

 

Lamb, D. 1991. Discovery, Creativity, and Problem-Solving. Aldershot, Hants. UK, Avebury.

 

Leavis, F. R. and C. p. Snow, Eds. 1972. Nor Shall My Sword: Discourses on Pluralism, Compassion, and Social Hope. London, Chatto and Windus.

 

Levi-Montalcini. In Praise of Imperfection: My Life and Work. Trans. Liugi Attardi. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

 

Levitan, T. 1960. Laureates: Jewish Winners of the Nobel Prize. New York, Twayne.

 

Lewer N.2006.  Charles Richet: medical scientist, innovator, peace thinker and savant. Medicine, Conflict & Survival. 22(2):145-58, Apr-Jun.

 

Lewinsohn R. 2003. Prophet in his own country: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize Perspectives in Biology & Medicine. 46(4):532-49.

 

Lewontin, R. C. (1995). Genes, Environment, and Organisms. Hidden Histories of Science. R. B. Silvers. New York, New York Review Inc.: 115-139.

 

Li, W. 1986. “Nobel prize: critical appraisal.” Beijing Review 29(v.): 22-3.

 

Lichtigfeld, F. J. and M. A. Gillman 1991. “In spite of its validity, has Dale's principle served its purpose? A scientific paradox.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 34: 239-253.

 

Liljestrand, G. and C. G. Bernhard (1972). The Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Nobel: The Man and His Prizes. Nobelstiftelsen and W. Odelberg. New York, London, Amsterdam, American Elsevier: 139-278.

 

Lindahl, B. I. 1992. “Discovery, theory change, and the Nobel Prize: on the mechanisms of scientific evolution. An Introduction.” Theoretical Medicine 13: 97-116.

 

Lindahl, B. I. B. 1995. “Science has partly outgrown Nobel's vision of the Prizes.” The Scientist 9(November 13): 12.

 

Lindahl, B. I. B., A. Elzinga, et al. 1998. “Credit for Discoveries: Citation Data as a Basis for History of Science Analyses.” Theoretical Medicine 19: 609-620.

 

Ljunggren, Bengt & George W. Bruyn. 2002. The Nobel Prize in medicine and the Karolinska Institute : the story of Axel Key and Alfred Nobel. Basel: Karger, 2002

 

Lopez-Munoz F. Alamo C. Rubio G. 2008. The neurobiological interpretation of the mental functions in the work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal. History of Psychiatry. 19(73 Pt 1):5-24, 2008 Mar.

 

Luttenberger, F. 1996. “Excellence and Chance: The Nobel Prize; Case of E. von Behring and É. Roux.” HIstory and Philosophy of Life Sciences 18: 225-238.

 

Maggiore, C. and K. Mullis 2000. What If Everything You Thought You Knew About AIDS was Wrong?: The Book That Will Change Your View of HIV and AIDS. . . and Possibly Change Your Life, American Foundation for AIDS Alternatives.

 

McCarthy, M. 1997. “Nobel prize winner Gadjusek admits child abuse.” Lancet 349: 623.

 

McGrayne, S. B. 1993. Nobel Prize Women in Science: Their Lives, Struggles and Momentous Discoveries [juvenile]. Seacaucus NJ, Carol Pub. Group.

 

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