How to write an essay for PHIL 201.
Pretend you are running Phil 201 for a daytselect one or more primary source(s) They will be the text(s) that you will analyze, just as we used Homer, Hippocrates, Galen, etc. Can be historical, medical, newspaper, etc
Your secondary sources are those that
HELP you do the analysis.
- a single disease at several points in time; how ideas about it changed
- several diseases at one time in history to show what concepts had in common even though diseases may have been different
- something that is not usually seen as a disease eg. smoking and show how is becoming a disease, could become a disease and what advantages or disadvantages would come from making it or not making it a disease
- something that is seen as a disease (eg. a neurosis) and discuss why it should /should not be etc. etc.
- a novel or short story or a poem and look at the way the author portrays a disease.
- Invent a disease (i.e. fiction) analyze with footnotes or epilogue the theories of disease and other course concepts that you used in your fiction work
REMEMBER TO REFER TO CONCEPTS and THEORIES DISCUSSED IN PHIL 201!
It is desirable but not essential that you relate your topic to one (more) of the medical and philosophical authors whom we have read. Once you know what you want to think about, you must decide on your sources. Read your sources before you start to write.
Introduction: define the subject and what you intend to say about it.
-for PHIL 201 you should try to relate topic to course
and/or philosophical notions that pertain to
the medical topic either chronologically or culturally
NB WRITE THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH LAST.
Body of essay: present some of the ideas in your sources
first primary sources, then secondary (what others have had to
say about it). I don't mind if most of your info here comes from
someone else as long as you give them credit FOOTNOTES!!!.
if you are addressing a change in concepts, present this
in some kind of order, eg. chronological.
always attempt to explain why disease concept came to exist or changed
Conclusion. You should be writing mostly what you think about all of this. Try to relate to important ways of looking at the world that preceded or were contemporary with your subject. Why the disease (or event or response) you studied was significant. Could it be representative of something in our world? Could it be a model for understanding? Do you find any resonance or lack of resonance with past disease concepts? Which of your secondary authors did you find most/least credible and why?
DO NOT STEAL IDEAS BORROW THEM. If you like an author's idea so much that you can only agree completely and can't think of anything else, then say so. But give credit to that author and then defend your opinion ie try to think of arguments others might use to attack you and your author friend and discuss.
References: make sure all statements, either direct quotations or paraphrased material has a footnote (bottom of page) or an endnote (end of essay) or a reference in the text to your bibliography at the end of essay). The easiest are endnotes: as long as you put in all the info you don't need to have a separate bibliography. See sample styles. there are many varieties of punctuation. I don't care which you choose, but strive for consistency.
Writing. Prose matters. You cannot get an A if your paper is poorly written. Queen s has a writing center where you can find help. TAs are helpers with respect to ideas and thoughts, but they are not for proof reading FYI Here is a short list of writing habits to which Duffin is allergic; it helps to pay attention to them.
Bibliography list of ALL the books, articles, newspapers, TV shows etc you used. Not essential IF AND ONLY if you have complete endnotes.
See following examples for guides to writing to be found in reference libraries at Queen's and in bookstore and English dept..
An Alphabetically-arranged-according-to-author Bibliography. In the text of the essay references can be made at the end of sentences as follows (Turabian, 1987, p.3).
Norman, Colin, Writing Essays: A Short Guide, Kingston, Queen's University Department of English, 1985. (you should be able to get one at English dept)
Secretary of State, The Canadian Style. A Guide to Writing and Editing, Toronto and London, Dundurn Press, 1985.
Turabian, Kate L., Student's Guide for Writing College Papers, 3d ed., Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1976.
Turabian, Kate. L., A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 5th ed., Chiacago, University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Endnotes arranged in numbered order according to reference numbers in the text. No other bibliography is needed with this method.
1. Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 5th ed., Chiacago, University of Chicago Press, 1987, p 14.
2. Colin Norman, Writing Essays: A Short Guide, Kingston, Queen's University Department of English, 1985, p. 4.
3. Secretary of State, The Canadian Style. A Guide to Writing and Editing, Toronto and London, Dundurn Press, 1985, pp. 1-15.
4. Kate L. Turabian, Student's Guide for Writing College Papers, 3d ed., Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1976, p. 3.
5. Ibid, p. 15. [refers to work immediately above, i.e. 4 ]
6. Norman, op. cit., p. 10. [refers to work already cited, i.e. 2 ]